World History chapter 15 terms

World History chapter 15 terms

Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas
Columbus
Italian man who explored for Portugal and accidentally discovered the Americas in 1492
Magellan
Portuguese man who was first to circumnavigate the globe
Northwest Passage
non-existent water route through the Americas to Asia searched for by the Europeans
Moctezuma
Aztec emperor who was imprisoned and forced to sign over his land and treasure to the Spanish
Mercantilism
System in which a mother country maintains tight control over her colonies and forbids the colonies to trade with other countries. The colonies provide the mother country with raw materials and the mother country provides manufactured goods.
Mestizo
Caucasian/ Indian
Quebec (New France)
France claimed it in 1608, did well in the fur trade, not nearly as prosperous as the Spanish colonies
Seven years war
Great Britain vs France, Britain won and ensured domination of North America
Olaudah Equiano
African who is captured at age 11, later was freed and moved to London, wrote about his experience on the middle passage
Brazil
conquered by Portugal, similar to Spanish colonies, made money off of Brazil wood
Malinche
Native American woman who served as a translater and advised Cortes to team up with the Aztecs’ enemys to win their land
Conquistador
Spanish conquerors who forced natives to convert, took their gold, and forced them to work
Cortez
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs
Viceroy
ruled in the name of the king
Viceroyalities
land the viceroy rules
Encomienda
Land grants to conquistadors that included all of the people living on the land as forced laborers, plantations and mines
Creole
descendant of peninsulares
Jamestown
First English colony in the new world (1607)
Middle Passage
Terrible journey across the Atlantic ocean in which hundreds of Africans were packed into small vessels
The Columbian exchange
exchange of food, plants, animals and diseases between the old and new world
Tariffs
tax on imports that protects local businesses
Taino
Native Americans who the Spanish first encounter, kind and friendly, but Spanish capture them and claim their land
Disease
Natives had no immunity to European diseases like smallpox, killed 90%
Atahualpa
Incan emperor who refuses to convert or become a vassal and is murdered despite his ransom
Tenochtitlan
Aztec capitol, becomes Mexico City, falls in 1521
Joint-Stock Companies
people combine investments to spread out the risk
Bartolome de Las Casas
priest who described and condemned the encomienda system
Mulatto
Caucasian/ African
Plymouth
English colony established in 1620 (pilgrims)
Triangle Trade
trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas. Europe provided manufactured goods, Africa provided slaves, America provided raw materials
Privateers
pirates paid by the government to raid other counties’ ships