World History Chapter 17

World History Chapter 17

geocentric
system of planetary motion that places Earth at the center of the universe
heliocentric
system of planetary motion that places the Sun at the center of the universe
universal law of gravitation
one of Newton’s rules of motion that explains that planets are held in their orbits by gravity
rationalism
system of thought by Descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
scientific method
systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence
inductive reasoning
the idea that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by observing and testing
philosophe
French name for philosopher during the Enlightenment
separation of powers
system of government where the executive, legislative, and judicial branches limit and control each other through checks and balances
deism
an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law
laissez-faire
the idea that the government should not regulate the economy; French for “to let (people) do (what they want)”
social contract
idea that society agrees to be governed by its general will, and should be subject to the general will
salon
elegant drawing room where people would meet to discuss the ideas of the Enlightenment
enlightened absolutism
system of governing where rulers tried to use Enlightenment principles, while keeping their royal powers
rococo
highly secular artistic style that replaced baroque; emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action
federal system
political system in which power is shared between national and state governments
philosopher
a person who seeks wisdom or enlightenment; a scholar or a thinker
sphere
any of the concentric revolving, spherical transparent shells in which according to ancient astronomy, the stars, sun, planets, and moon are set
generation
a group of individuals born and living at the same time
arbitrary
at one’s discretion; random
rigid
inflexible, unyielding
unique
distinctive; unequaled
amendment
an alteration proposed or effected by parliamentary or constitutional procedure
guaranteed
assured the fulfillment of a condition
Nicolus Copernicus
Polish astronomer and mathematician; believed in a sun-centered conception of the universe
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer and mathematician; confirmed that the sun was at the center of the universe and that the planets’ orbits around the sun were elliptical
Galileo Galilei
Italian scientist; discovered that heavenly bodies were solids, not light; used a telescope to discover mountains on Earth’s moon and four moons around Jupiter; he published his findings and the Catholic Church ordered him to abandon his ideas
Isaac Newton
English scientist and mathematician; he discovered and named the laws of motion, including gravity
Margaret Cavendish
one of the most prominent women scientists of the seventeenth century; wrote Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy
Maria Winkelmann
the most famous of the female astronomers of Germany
René Descartes
French philosopher who said “I think, therefore I am,” meaning that reason is the chief source of knowledge; called the father of modern rationalism
Francis Bacon
English philosopher who believed that scientists should rely on inductive reasoning, not ancient knowledge; introduced the scientific method
John Locke
English intellectual; his ideas led people to believe that they could create a new and better society; published Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Montesquieu
French noble whose famous work The Spirit of the Laws was a study of governments; promoted a system of checks and balances among three branches of government
Voltaire
Paris philosopher who was the greatest figure of the Enlightenment; outspoken against tyranny, ignorance, and the excesses of the Church; wrote Treatise on Toleration and many other works based on reason and natural law
Denis Diderot
French philosophe who wrote the Encyclopedia
Adam Smith
Scottish economist and philosopher; wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776, which proposed that economic competition without government interference would benefit all society
Cesare Beccaria
wrote On Crimes and Punishment in 1764, a new approach to justice
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French philosophe who published The Social Contract in 1762; introduced the concept of the social contract between individuals and government
Paris
capital of France; center of large circle of philosophes
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer; many see her as the founder of the modern women’s rights movement in the West; wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women
London
capital of England (present-day United Kingdom); had first daily newspaper printed in 1702
John Wesley
Anglican minister in England; founder of Methodism
Frederick the Great
Frederick II of Prussia; enlightened ruler who granted limited freedom of speech and press and greater religious toleration
Maria Theresa
Empress who worked to centralize and strengthen the Austrian Empire, worked to improve condition of the serfs
Catherine the Great
ruler of Russia who tried to use Enlightenment ideas until a rebellion of peasants halted all changes
Silesia
region of Austria invaded by Prussia
Balthasar Neumann
great architect of the 1700s; two masterpieces are the Church of the Fourteen Saints and the Residence (palace of prince-bishop of Wurzburg)
Antoine Watteau
French artist during the rococo style; Embarkation for Cythera is one of his rococo masterpieces
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
famous rococo artist known for his frescos; masterpiece and world’s largest fresco is Allegory of the Planets and Continents
Johann Sebastian Bach
organist and composer from Germany; one of the greatest composers of all time; a famous work is Mass in B Minor
George Handel
German composer but spent much of his career in England; famous for religious music, including Messiah
Joseph Haydn
famous composer of The Creation and The Seasons
Wolfgang Mozart
a child prodigy, he was a famous composer from Austria; his masterpieces include The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute, and Don Giovanni
Henry Fielding
English writer; best-known work is The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
Hanoverians
a dynasty of England began by George I
Robert Walpole
head of cabinet (later called prime minister) of England from 1721 to 1742
George Washington
commander in chief of the Continental Army; later the first president of the United States
Declaration of Independence
political document declaring that the American colonies were now free of Great Britain and were independent states
Thomas Jefferson
writer of the Declaration of Independence; later the third president of the United States
Yorktown
city where the British surrendered to American and French forces in 1781, thus ending the American Revolution
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution; guaranteed basic rights to citizens