World History Chapter 18

World History Chapter 18

ancien regime
The old order before the Revolution in France.
estates
the three social classes in France
First Estate
nuns, monks, priests, bishops, abbots, and other high church leaders
Second Estate
the nobility of French society
Thrid Estate
most diverse of class, “everybody else”
bourgeoisie
middle class; bankers, lawyers, doctors, merchants, journalists
deflict spending
when a government spends more money than it takes in
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but he was later fired
Louis XVI
– King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Estates-General
the legislative body consisting of representives of the three estates. they hoped that they could bring the absolute monarch under the control of the nobles and guarentee their own privileges
cahiers
notebooks that Louix XVI made the three estates prepare listing their grievances
Tennis Court Oath
third estate is locked out of their meeting room, so the take it to an indoor tennis court and swear an oath of not giving up until a new constitution is established
Bastille
a grim medieval fortress used as a prison for political and other prisoners. it was believed that it also held weapons and gunpowder.
factions
conflicting groups
Marquis de Lafayette
the aristocratic hero of two worlds. he fought alongside George Washington in the American Revolution and headed the national guard in Paris
March on Versailles
On October 5, 6,000 women marched from Paris to Versailles demanding and shouting for bread. they demanded to see the king, but their anger was directed towards the queen, for living too lavish of a life.
Marie Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
emigres
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution
sans-culottes
urban workers “those without knee breeches”, pushed for more radical action
Jacobins
revolutionary political club, mostly middle classmen
suffrage
the right to vote
Maximilien Robespierre
He set out to build a French “republic of virtue”; his rule became known as the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
lead under Robespierre, (1793-1794), “death to all traitors”
guillotine
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution. aka national razor
Napoleon Bonaparte
a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories, would become ruler of France
nationalism
a strong feeling of pride and devotion to one’s country
Marseilles
a port city in France, where a song was sung by troops to fight against tyranny – now known as the national anthem of this country.
Napoleonic Code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
plebiscite
popular vote by ballot
annex
incorporate
Continental System
Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain’s economy.
guerilla warfare
hit and run raids
scorched-earth policy
when the russians retreated eastward against Napoleon burning crops and towns along the way
abdicate
to step down from power
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon (1814-1815)
legitimacy
restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated
Concert of Europe
powers met to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe