World History Chapter 21

World History Chapter 21

Charles V
he inherited spain and was also elected Holy Roman Emperor. He was a devout Catholic and opposed Lutherans and Muslims
Peace of Augsburg
allowed German princes to choose the religion for their territory
Ferdinand
inherited Austria and the Holy Roman Empire from Charles V
Philip II
an absolute monarch during the reformation who believed in divine right and inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies from Charles V. He also inherited Portugal from the king of Portugal. American mines provided him with incredible wealth and he attacked the Ottoman Empire for the pope. He also launched the Spanish Armada against Protestant England and Elizabeth I. Since the Spanish borrowed a lot of money from other nations, he declared the state bankrupt three times and had to maintain an army to keep his subjects under control
El Greco
a Greek artist named Domenikos Theotokopoulos who spent most of his adult life in Spain
Diego Velazquez
painted royal portraits and was the court painter to Philip IV of Spain
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote the story of Don Quixote de la Mancha who goes crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights
Catherine de Medicis
King Henry II’s wife who tried to preserve royal authority during the conflicts between the Catholics and the Huguenots in France
Henry IV (Henry of Navarre)
a Huguenot prince who married Catherine’s daughter and was descended from Louis IX. He gave up Protestantism when he became king and became a Catholic to gain the favor of his people and developed the Edict of Nantes. He was assassinated in 1610
Edict of Nantes
a declaration that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship
Louis XIII
Henry IV’s son and a weak king who appointed Cardinal Richelieu to help him rule
Cardinal Richelieu
essentially became the ruler of France when Louis XIII appointed him. He moved against the Huguenots and believed that Protestantism was a political conspiracy against the Catholic king. Although he did not take away the Huguenot’s right to worship, he forbade Protestant cities to have walls. He also sought to weaken the nobles’ power and increase the power of the government. To limit Hapsburg power, he involved France in the Thirty Years’ War
skepticism
the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain
Michel de Montaigne
developed the essay. In one of his essays, he pointed out that when a new belief arose, it replaced an old belief that people once accepted as truth
Rene Descartes
wrote Meditations of First Philosophy and examined the argument that no one could ever be certain of anything. Also helped to develop the scientific method
Louis XIV
Louis XIII’s son and one of the most powerful rulers in French history who technically began his reign when he was four. He took control of the government at age 22 when Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661. He weakened the power of the nobles by excluding them from his councils and increased the power of intendants. He also made sure that the local officials communicated regularly with him. He invaded many places in an effort to expand France’s borders until his luck ran out
Cardinal Mazarin
ruled over France until Louis XIV was old enough to rule. He was hated because he increased taxes and centralized the government. The nobles tried to rebel against him but failed
intendants
government agents whose power increased under Louis XIV and whose job was to collect taxes and administer justice
Jean Baptiste Colbert
helped Louis XIV make France a center of economic, political, and cultural brilliance. He believed in the theory of mercantilism and tried to make France self-sufficient to prevent wealth from leaving the country. He gave government funds and tax benefits to French countries and placed a high tariff on international goods
Versailles
a palace where Louis XIV lived with hundreds of nobles about 11 miles southwest of Paris; a center of the arts during Louis’s reign
Moliere
one of Louis XIV’s favorite writers who wrote Tartuffe, a play that mocks religious hypocrisy
Treaty of Nijmegen
the treaty signed after Louis XIV invaded the Dutch Netherlands. The French gained several towns and a region called Franche-Comte in this war
Philip of Anjou
Louis XIV’s 16-year-old grandson who was promised the throne of Spain by the king of Spain, Charles II
The War of the Spanish Succession
a war in which England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, and several German and Italian states tried to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones
Ferdinand II
the future Holy Roman Emperor, head of the Hapsburg family and ruler of Bohemia. He began the Thirty Years’ War by closing some Protestant churches in Bohemia and crushing the Protestant revolt
The Thirty Years’ War
a conflict over religion and territory among European ruling families. The war can be divided into two main phases: the phase of Hapsburg triumphs and the phase of Hapsburg defeats
Gustavus Adolphus
he shifted the tide of the Thirty Years’ War and drove Hapsburg armies out of northern Germany; died in 1632
Peace of Westphalia
the treaty that ended the Thirty Years’ War. It weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austia, strengthened France by giving them German territory, made German princes independent of the Holy Roman Empire, ended religious wars in Europe, and introduced a new method of peace negotiation
Charles VI
the Hapsburg ruler in 1711 and Maria Theresa’s father
Maria Theresa
inherited the Hapsburg territory from her father, Charles VI. Her main enemy was Prussia
Hohenzollerns
the main ruling family of Prussia
Frederick William I
a Hohenzollern who inherited the title of elector of Brandenburg; also known as the Great Elector. He introduced permanent taxation to pay for the best standing army in Europe and weakened the representative assemblies. He built Prussia into a highly militarized society
junkers
Prussia’s landowning nobility
Frederick II
Frederick William’s son who tried to run away with a friend to escape being king of Prussia. He was forced to watch his friend’s beheading as punishment. When he became king he softened some of his father’s laws and encouraged religious toleration. Also known as Frederick the Great
War of the Austrian Succession
a war in which Frederick II of Prussia fought Maria Theresa of Austria for the occupation of Silesia. Great Britain joined Austria and Maria Theresa did stop Prussia. Even still, she lost Silesia in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
The Seven Years’ War
a war that began when Frederick II attacked Saxony, an Austrian ally. Eventually, every European power was involved in the war
Ivan III
ruler of Russia who conquered most of the territory around Moscow, liberated Russia from the Mongols, and centralize Russian government
Vasily
Ivan III’s son who continued his father’s work of adding territory to the Russian state and increasing the power of the central government
Ivan IV
took the throne of Russia when he was three and the boyars fought to control him until he was 16 and crowned himself czar. He also married Anastasia Romanov. His good period was from 1547 to 1560 when he added lands to Russia, gave Russia a code of laws, and ruled justly. His bad period came in 1560 after Anastasia died. He accused the boyars of poisoning his wife and organized a police force to hunt down and murder people who were believed to be traitors such as boyars, their families, and the peasants who worked on their lands. During this time he became known as Ivan the Terrible. In 1581 he killed his oldest son and left his weak second son to rule
boyars
Russia’s landowning nobles
The Time of Troubles
a period of turmoil in Russia after Ivan IV’s son died without an heir in which boyars struggles for power, heirs died under mysterious conditions, and several impostors tried to claim the throne
Michael Romanov
Anastasia’s grandnephew who was chosen to rule by representatives from many Russian cities. His rule began the Romanov dynasty
Czar Peter I
during the beginning of his reign he shared the throne of Russia with his half-brother, but became the sole ruler in 1696 at age 24. He was one of Russia’s greatest reformers and continued the trend of increasing the czar’s power. His main goal was to westernize Russia, and for this reason he is known as Peter the Great. He brought the Russian Orthodox church under state control and set up the Holy Synod to run the church under his direction. He also reduced the power of the great landowners and hired European military officers to train his soldiers. To pay for this army he imposed heavy taxes. He also established St. Petersburg
The Grand Embassy
the name for Peter the Great’s journey to western Europe to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques
The Window on Europe
the name for St. Petersburg after Peter the Great fought Sweden for 21 years for control of the land
Elizabeth I
daughter of Henry VII and Anne Boleyn. She ruled England for 44 years and brought England into a golden age
James Stuart
he was king of Scotland at the time of his cousin Elizabeth’s death and, since he was her next of kin, he became King James I of England in 1603. He struggled with Parliament over money and offended the Puritan members of Parliament because he didn’t make Puritan reforms
Charles I
James I’s son who always needed money for his constant wars with Spain and France. He dissolved Parliament when they refused to give him any more money but he was forced to bring it back 3 years later. When Parliament made him sign the Petition of Right before he could get any money, he dissolved it agin and imposed fees and fines on the English people to get money
The Petition of Right
Parliament forced Charles I to sign this document that set forth the idea that the law was higher than the king and therefore contradicted theories of absolute monarchy
The English Civil War
a war that began when Charles I tried to arrest Parliament’s leaders for limiting his power. England broke into two sides: those who were loyal to Charles (Royalists or Cavaliers) and the Puritan supporters of Parliament (Roundheads). Both sides were evenly matched until Oliver Cromwell joined the Puritans
Oliver Cromwell
joined the Puritans in 1644 and began defeating the Cavaliers with his New Model Army. In 1647, he and the Puritans held King Charles I prisoner and executed him for treason against Parliament. This man was now in control of the government. He abolished the House of Lords and established a commonwealth. He had a constitution drafted but eventually tore it up and became an absolute ruler who promoted Puritan laws
Charles II
restored the monarchy after Oliver Cromwell’s government collapsed; Charles I’s older son
Restoration
the period of time during Charles II’s rule in which he restores the monarchy
habeas corpus
gives every prisoner the right to be brought before a judge to specify the charges against him; states that a monarch cannot imprison someone for opposing the ruler; states that prisoners cannot be held indefinitely without trials (latin for “to have the body”)
James II
Charles II’s brother and a Catholic. He offended his subjects by displaying Catholicism and dissolved Parliament when they protested his promotion of Catholics to high office
Whigs
one of the first political parties in England; opposed James II
Tories
one of the first political parties in England; supported James II
William and Mary
James II’s older daughter and her husband, a prince of the Netherlands. Seven members of Parliament invited them to England to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. When they led their army into London, James fled to France
the Glorious Revolution
the bloodless overthrow of James II by William and Mary
constitutional monarchy
a monarchy in which the laws limited the ruler’s power