World History Chapter 23

estate
social classes in France
First Estate
social class made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church and owned 10% of the land in france. They did not like the Enlightenment ideas because it threatened their power
Second Estate
social class made up of rich nobles (about 2% of the population), owned about 20% of the land in France, and paid almost no taxes. They did not like the Enlightenment ideas because it threatened their power
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Third Estate
social class that made up 97% of the French population and can be divided into 3 groups: the bourgeoisie, the urban workers, and the peasants
bourgeoisie
one of the three groups in the Third Estate and made up France’s middle class. They were bankers, factory owners, merchants, professionals, and skilled artisans and some were as rich as nobles. However, unlike the nobles, these people had to pay high taxes and lacked privileges.
urban workers
one of the three groups in the Third Estate and the poorest of the three groups. They were tradespeople, apprentices, laborers and domestic servants. They were paid low wages, often lacked work, and frequently went hungry. They resented the nobles and the clergy for their privileges and special treatment.
peasants
one of the three groups in the Third Estate and formed more than 80% of France’s population. They paid about half of their income in dues to nobles, tithes to the Church, and taxes to the king’s agents. They resented the nobles and the clergy for their privileges and special treatment.
Enlightenment Ideas
new views about power and authority in government and resulted in the members of the Third Estate demanding equality, liberty, and democracy.
Louis XVI
king of France during the revolution who sunk the country into debt by spending money on luxuries and helping the Americans fight against Great Britain. He was a weak and indecisive ruler and had little patience for government. He ignored the growing debt until he had almost no money left and finally called a meeting of the Estates-General to approve a tax on the nobility.
Estates-General
an assembly of representatives from all three estates
Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes
a clergyman who suggested that the Third Estate call themselves the National Assembly and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
National Assembly
a group formed by members of the Third Estate; its establishment began a representative government in France
Tennis Court Oath
an oath taken by members of the National Assembly when they were locked out of their meeting room. They burst through the doors of an indoor tennis court and pledged to stay there until they had written a new constitution.
Great Fear
a wave of senseless panic that began in France after the fall of the Bastille
the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
a document adopted by the National Assembly that stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights”. These rights included “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” In keeping with these principles, revolutionary leaders adopted the expression “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
Legislative Assembly
the constitution written by the National Assembly (which Louis reluctantly approved) created a limited constitutional monarchy and this new legislative body. It could create laws and approve or reject declarations of war. However, the king still had the executive power to enforce laws.
radicals
one of the three groups of the Legislative Assembly who sat on the left side of the hall. They were opposed to monarchy and wanted changes in the government
moderates
one of the three groups of the Legislative Assembly who sat in the center of the hall. They wanted some changes in the government, but not as many as the radicals
conservatives
one of the three groups of the Legislative Assembly who sat on the right side of the hall. They liked the idea of a limited monarchy and wanted few changes to the government
emigres
nobles and others who had fled France and hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the Old REgime
sans-clottes
Parisian workers and small shopkeepers who wanted the Revolution to bring even greater changes. Although they did not have a role in the assembly, they exerted their power on the streets of Paris
September Massacres
several days in early September during which citizens raided the prisons and murdered over 1,000 prisoners. Many nobles, priests, and other royalists were also killed by the angry mobs
National Convention
after the September Massacres, the Legislative Assembly put aside the constitution, dissolved the assembly and elected this group. They abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic and also found Louis XVI guilty of treason. Adult male citizens were allowed to vote and hold office
Jacobin Club
a radical political organization
Maximilian Robespierre
a Jacobin leader who gained power in 1793. He and his supporters set out to build a “republic of virtue”. They changed the calendar, dividing the year into 12 months of 30 days and eliminating Sundays because they believed that religion was old fashioned and dangerous. He governed France basically as a dictator and established the Committee of Public Safety. Eventually, the National Convention turned on him out of fear for their own safety and had him arrested and executed
Reign of Terror
the name for the period during which Maximilian Robespierre ruled
Committee of Public Safety
a committee established by Maximilian Robespierre to protect the Revolution from its enemies. These enemies were often tried in the morning and guillotined that same afternoon
Directory
after Robespierre’s death, the moderate leaders in the National Convention drafted a new plan of government, which placed power in the hands of the upper middle class and called for a two house legislature and this executive assembly. It was made up of five men who were moderates, not revolutionary idealists
Napoleon Bonaparte
born on the island of Corsica and joined the army of the new government when the French Revolution began. He became a hero when he defended the National Convention from royalists. After that, he won a series of battles in Italy and covered up his failure in Egypt. When he returned, he seized control of the government and took the title of the first consul. His goal was to strengthen the central government and achieve some of the goals of the revolution. He became emperor of France in 1804.
plebiscite
a yes/no vote of the people. This type of voting was used to elect Napoleon as the first consul and give him most of the power of the government
lycees
government-run public schools that Napoleon set up to train men to become public officers
concordat
an agreement. Napoleon signed one of these with Pope Pius VII in which the government recognized the influence of the Church, but rejected Church control in international affairs.
Napoleonic Code
a system of laws, developed by Napoleon, that eliminated many injustices. However, in eliminating these injustices, it actually limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights (ex. freedom of speech was restricted under the code).
Battle of Trafalgar
a battle that took place off of the southwest coast of Spain in which Horatio Nelson, a British commander, captured many French ships and ultimately defeated the French navy. This loss forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Great Britain
blockade
a forceful closing of ports. Napoleon set up one of these to prevent trade and communication between Great Britain and the rest of Europe.
Continental System
the name for the policy in which Napoleon cut Great Britain off from Europe. it was supposed to make continental Europe more self-sufficient.
Peninsular War
a war that began when Napoleon sent an invasion force through Spain in an effort to get Portugal to accept the Continental System. For 6 years, Spanish guerrillas struck at French armies and later the British also fought against Napoleon. After this war, people began to feel abused by the French and started to turn against them
scorched-earth policy
a military tactic in which the army in retreat burns all of the fields and slaughters the livestock as to leave nothing for the enemy to eat. Czar Alexander I practiced this when Napoleon invaded Russia
Battle of Borodino
a battle between the Russians and the French in which the Russians eventually fell back and allowed Napoleon to move on Moscow. However, the city had been burned to the ground when Napoleon arrived. Napoleon spent 4-5 weeks in the ruined city before he decided to turn back to France. It was at this point that Alexander I attacked Napoleon’s army, leaving him with only 10,000 men.
battle at Leipzig
this battle occurred after Napoleon lost most of his men in Russia. In this battle, Napoleon and his inexperienced army fought against the allied forces, who easily defeated them. After this, the French resistance crumbled quickly and allied armies were pushing towards Paris
Louis XVIII
Louis XVI’s brother who took the throne of France after Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba. He became unpopular among his subjects because he was suspected of wanting to undo the Revolution’s land reforms. Napoleon saw his unpopularity as an opportunity to regain power
Hundred Days
the period of time during which Napoleon returned from Elba, lost the battle at Waterloo, and was shipped of to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic
Olympe de Gouges
a woman who published a declaration of the rights of women. Her ideas were rejected and she was later declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed
Jean-Paul Marat
one of the most prominent Jacobins who edited a newspaper called L’Ami du Peuple (Friend of the People) in which he called for the death of all those who continued to support the king in his editorials
Georges Danton
a lawyer and member of the Jacobin club who is known for his devotion to the rights of Paris’s poor people. Under Robespierre’s rule, he found himself in danger. His friends were afraid to defend him against Robespierre and ended up condemning him to death
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in Vienna in which the rulers of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France worked together to contain French power, balance the powers of Europe, and restore as many as possible of the rulers whom Napoleon had driven out
Holy Alliance
an agreement among Czar Alexander I of Russia, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Frederick William III of Prussia. In this agreement, they pledged to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of revolution.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
the most influential of all of the men at the Congress of Vienna. He distrusted the ideals of the French Revolution and wanted to prevent French aggression, restore a balance of power, and restore Europe’s royal families
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances devised by Metternich, which ensured that nations would help one another if any revolutions broke out
Creoles
Spanish colonists born in Spanish America (Latin America) who were inspired by the French Revolution to seize control of the Spanish colonies and expand their power
Peninsulares
Spanish colonists born in Spain who were loyal to the King. They tried to regain control of the colonial governments when the Creoles began to gain power

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