World History Chapter 25: Industrial Revolution

World History Chapter 25: Industrial Revolution

During the 1700’s, who paved the way for the Agricultural Revolution?
large landowners
What did landowners do that allowed them to cultivate larger fields?
enclosed their land with fences
What are enclosures?
landowners experimented with more productive seeding and harvesting methods that improved crops
What 2 things happened as a result of enclosures?
1. landowners tried new agricultural methods
2. small farmers had to give up their farms and move to cities
What did Jethro Tull invent?
seed drill
What did the seed drill allow farmers to do?
sow seeds in rows
How did sowing seeds in rows help crops?
allowed more seeds to take root
What method proved to be one of the best methods of improving crops?
crop rotation
What was crop rotation?
different plants are rotated to restore nutrients
Who was Robert Blakewell?
increased his sheep meat by allowing his best sheep to breed
What was industrialization?
process of developing machine production of goods
Where did the industrial revolution begin in Europe?
England
Why did the industrial revolution begin in England?
working population and natural resources
What were England’s 4 natural resources that helped the Industrial Revolution take place?
1. water and coal to fuel the new machines
2. iron ore to construct machines
3. rivers for inland transportation
4. harbors for ships
How did England expand their economy for industrialization?
1. businesses invested in manufacturing of inventions
2. availability of bank loans
3. growing overseas trade
4. increased demand for goods
What are the 3 factors of production for industry that England had?
1. land
2. labor
3. capital
What did John Kay invent?
shuttle that increased the productivity of weavers
What was the advantage of the shuttle?
clothing could be produced faster
What did James Hargreaves invent?
spinning jenny
What was the advantage of the spinning jenny?
allowed spinners to work 8 different threads at a time
What did Richard Arkwright invent?
water frame that used waterpower to drive spinning wheels
What did Samuel Crompton invent?
spinning mule that made thread stronger and finer
What did Edmund Cartwright invent?
power loom that sped up weaving and production
What were factories?
buildings where wealthy merchants set up the new inventions to produce clothing
What did Eli Whitney invent?
cotton gin
What did the cotton gin do?
removed seeds and sped up the gathering of cotton
What did the advancements in the textile industry increase the search for?
cheap, convenient source of power
What did James Watt determine?
how to make the steam engine faster and more efficient while burning less fuel
What did Robert Fulton invent?
steam engine built for a steamboat
What was the first steamboat called?
Clermont
How did water transportation improve?
creation of a network of canals
What did John McAdam invent?
equipped road with a layer of large stones that improved drainage
How did the gravel benefit cars?
cars were less likely to get stuck in the mud
What did George Stephenson design?
world’s first railroad line
What was Stephenson’s first railway line called?
Rocket
What was significant about the Rocket?
world’s fastest railway line tested at 25 mph
What were 5 major effects of the railway?
1. transported materials and finished products cheaply
2. created new jobs for railroad workers and miners
3. increased sales of agricultural and fishing industries
4. country people moved to the cities
5. city people went to resorts
What were 4 negative effects of industrialization?
1. unhealthy working conditions
2. air pollution
3. water pollution
4. negative effects of child labor
What did many farmers do during industrialization to make more money?
moved to the factories to earn higher wages
What were 3 things citizens were able to do as a result to making more money in factories?
1. heat their homes
2. dine on beef
3. wore better clothing
What is urbanization?
city building and the movement of people to cities
Where were factories built?
near sources of energy (water and coal)
What were 10 negative living conditions during industrialization?
1. no development plans
2. no sanitary codes
3. no building codes
4. lacked adequate housing
5. lacked adequate education
6. lacked police protection
7. streets with no drains
8. workers worked in dark shelters
9. families lived in one bedroom
10. sickness was widespread
What were the working hours of factory workers?
14 hours a day, 6 days a week
Why were factories dangerous?
seldom were lit causing machines to injure workers
Where did the most dangerous work occur?
coal mines
Who represented the cheapest labor causing many of them to work in coal mines?
women and children
What was designed as a result of industry?
social classes
What were characteristics of the middle class?
1. landowners and aristocrats
2. had political power
3. comfortable standard of living
Which people were in the upper middle class?
1. government employees
2. doctors
3. lawyers
4. managers
What were characteristics of the working class?
1. laborers
2. poor living and working conditions
What were 5 positive effects of industrialization?
1. created jobs
2. increased the nation’s wealth
3. fostered technological progress
4. increased production of goods
5. raised the standard of living
What is Laissez Faire economics?
economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without government interference
Why do supporters of laissez faire economics believe government should not be involved?
government interferes with the production of wealth
What are Adam Smith’s Natural Laws of Economics?
1. Law of self-interest
2. Law of competition
3. Law of supply and demand
What is the Law of self-interest?
people work for their own good
What is the Law of competition?
forces people to make good products
What is the Law of supply and demand?
goods are produced at the lowest possible price
What is capitalism?
factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business to make a profit
Why were capitalists against minimum wage and better working conditions?
they would lower profits and undermine the production of wealth in society
What is utilitarianism?
people judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their ability or usefulness
What did people who support utilitarianism believe the government should do?
promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
What did John Stuart Mill do for working people?
developed policies that would lead to a more equal division of profits
What is socialism?
factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
How did Karl Marx believe a capitalist society would destroy itself?
1. factories would drive small businesses out of business
2. workers would revolt and destroy the economy
What is communism?
means of production are owned by the people and goods would be shared equally
What are unions?
labor associations that negotiated between workers and employers for better working conditions and fair pay
What is a strike?
refusal to work due to unfair treatment of workers
Which laws did the British Parliament pass in 1800 regarding workers and unions?
outlawed workers ability to form unions
In 1875, what did British trade unions earn the right to do?
right to strike and picket peacefully
What was formed in the United States in 1886?
U.S. unions formed the American Federation of Labor
What did workers gain as a result of a series of successful strikes?
higher wages and shorter hours
What was the Factory Act of 1833?
illegal to hire children under the age of 9
children aged 9-12 could only work 8 hours a day
children aged 13-17 could only work 12 hours a day
What was the Mines Act of 1842?
illegal for women and children to work underground
What was the Ten Hours Act of 1847?
limited the workday for women and children to 10 hours
What did England make illegal in 1833?
slavery
When did the United States make slavery illegal?
1865
What did Horace Mann create in 1850?
public school system