World History Chapter 29: The Great War

World History Chapter 29: The Great War

militarism
the policy of glorifying power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
Triple Alliance
A military group between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in the years preceding World War I in 1879. Italy joined three years later in 1881.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Became ruler of Germany in 1888 and dramatically changed Germany’s foreign policy. He wanted to show the world how mighty Germany had become and did not want to share his power with anyone. He let Germany’s treaty with Russia lapse in 1890, which allowed Russia to form a defensive military alliance with France. Next, he began a shipbuilding program in order to make the German navy equal to the British fleet. This led Britain to form an alliance with France.
Triple Entente
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I in 1907
What were the three forces at work in Europe that helped set the stage for war?
Nationalism, Imperialism, and militarism.
Who were the members of the Triple Alliance?
During World War I, this group consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.
Who were the members of the Triple Entente?
This group consisted of Great Britain, France, and Russia.
What single event set in motion the start of World War I?
The assassination if Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian who was a member of the Black Hand, a group devoted to ridding Bosnia of Austrian rule.
Central Powers
In World War I, the nations of Germany and Austria-Hungary, along with other nations the fought on their sides
Allies
In World War I, the nations of Great Britain, France, and Russia, along with the other nations on their side; also, the group of nations – including Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States – that opposed the Axis Powers in World War II
Western Front
In World War I, the region of northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other
Schlieffen Plan
Germany’s military tactic at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia
trench warfare
a form of military tactic in which opposing armies fight each other from ditches dug in the battle-field
Eastern Front
In World War I, the region along the German-Russian border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks
Which countries comprised the Central Powers?
This group consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.
Which countries comprised the Allies?
This group consisted of Great Britain , France, and Russia.
What were the characteristics of trench warfare?
In military tactics, opposing armies dig parallel ditches to protect themselves from enemy fire. This meant that in order to advance, an army would jump out of their ditches and charge the enemy line which typically resulted in massive loss of life for the charging force. However, staying in a ditch would not guarantee safety as artillery fire reigned death from above. Diseases were also a difficulty as poor living conditions made sanitation impossible.
What factors contributed to Russia’s war difficulties?
Their effort was impaired by lack of shipments due to German control of the Baltic Sea and the Ottoman control of the Black and Mediterranean Sea.
unrestricted submarine warfare
The use of underwater vessels to sink without warning any ship (including neutral ships and unarmed passenger liners) found in an enemy’s waters
total war
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the conflict effort
rationing
the limiting of the amounts of goods people can buy – often imposed by governments during wartime, when goods are in short supply
propaganda
the information or material spread to advance a cause or to damage an opponent’s cause
armistice
an agreement to stop fighting
What factors helped prompt the United States to join the
war for the Allies?
This country joined the friendly side because the Germans were practicing unrestricted submarine warfare which resulted in the destruction of multiple vessels from this particular country. After that, this country intercepted a telegram stating that the Germans would help Mexico reclaim the land it had lost to this particular country.
What role did women play in the war?
This gender replaced men in the workforce as they had all left for the war. They also served the military as nurses on the battle field.
What was the significance of the Second Battle of the
Marne?
It was the first skirmish that the Americans had fully participated in as well as the last major skirmish of the war.
Woodrow Wilson
born 1856, died 1924; He was tall and thin and often in poor health. He suffered from terrible indigestion and sometimes had to use a stomach pump on himself. A scholarly man, he once served as president of Princeton University in New Jersey. Passionate about international peace, he took on the U.S. Senate after it vowed to reject the Treaty of Versailles. During the political battle, he suffered a stroke that disabled him for the rest of his term. He eventually became the 28th president of the United States in 1913, and he served two terms.
Georges Clemenceau
born 1841, died 1929; The near opposite of Woodrow Wilson, he had a compact physique and a combative style that earned him the nickname “Tiger.” He worked as a physician and journalist before entering the political arena. Determined to punish Germany, he rarely agreed with Wilson and his larger quest for world peace. He once remarked of Wilson, “He thinks he is another Jesus Christ come upon earth to reform men.” He served as a French prime minister twice, in 1906-09 and from November 1917-20.
Fourteen Points
a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War II
self-determination
the freedom of a people to decide under what form of government they wish to live
Treaty of Versailles
the peace pact signed by Germany and the Allied powers after World War I
League of Nations
an international association formed after World War I with the goal of keeping peace among countries
What was the goal of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points?
The achievement of a lasting peace
What was the “war guilt” clause in the Treaty of Versailles?
A clause placing all blame for the war on Germany and forcing them to pay reparations for the damage done.
Why did the United States reject the Treaty of Versailles?
The people believed it was best to stay out of European affairs.