World History Chapter 3 Study Guide

deccan plateau
deccan plateau
a raised area of level land too dry for farming
moonsoons
moonsoons
winds that bring hot, dry air from the northeast in October and heavy rains from the southwest in Mid-June
harappa and mohenjo-daro
harappa and mohenjo-daro
they had wide streets, strong buiding materials, and plumbing systems
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Indra
Indra
the chief god and god of war
vedas
vedas
sacred teachings
brahman
brahman
a single spiritual power
aryan society
aryan society
priests, warriors, farmers, and merchants
rajahs
rajahs
aryan chiefs
atman
atman
essential self
moksha
moksha
union with the spiritual force called braham
reincarnation
reincarnation
rebirth of the soul in another soul
karma
karma
a persons action that affect where a person is born in the next life
dharma
dharma
religious and moral duties
castes
castes
social groups into which people are born
siddhartha gautama
siddhartha gautama
found out why humans suffered. the founder of buddhism
buddha
buddha
“the enlightened one” taught the four nobles truths and the eightfold path which includes “right aspirations”
nirvana
nirvana
union with the universe
buddhism
teaches people to seek enlightenment on their own, rather than through priests or gods. it also rejects castes and teaches that everyone can reach nirvana
goal of a hindu
goal of a hindu
achieve moksha
eightfold path
eightfold path
the path that direct people to moral life and enlightenment
chandragupta maurya
chandragupta maurya
founded the first imdian empire in 321 b.c. the capital of of the maurya empire had schools, libraries, and palaces
asoka
asoka
continued to expand the empire. he became a buddhist and ruled by moral example. he used elephants to attack kingdom of kalinga
gupta dynasty
gupta dynasty
united india from a.d. 320 to about 540
golden age
golden age
great period of great cultural achievements
decimal system
decimal system
advances in mathematics include a system of numerals and the concept of zero
ancient indians
ancient indians
everyday life revolved around the rules and duties related to a persons caste, family, and village
joint family
joint family
parents, children, and grandchildren who lived in the same house
advances in gupta rule
advances in gupta rule
advances in math system of numerals, concept of zero and decimal system
confucius
cared about social order and good government and five key relationship (filial piety most important)
civilization of china
civilization of china
first developed on the huang river
shang dynasty
shang dynasty
began about 1766 bc
zhou
zhou
overthrew the shang in 1122 b.c. they promoted the mandate of heaven, or divine right to rule
dynastic cycle
dynastic cycle
rise and fall of dynasty. if the ruler was currupt, heaven will let this dynasty fall
feudalism
feudalism
nobles had their own land, but owed military service and support to a ruler.
iron
iron
in 600s b.c. it was a tool developed making family more productive
laozi
laozi
founded daoism
philosophy
philosophy
system of ideas
fillial piety
fillial piety
respect for parents
oracle bones
oracle bones
questions were written on
shi huangdi
shi huangdi
qin dynasty began in 221 b.c. when the leader of the qin conquered zhou, to build unity, he standardized weights, measures, coins, and writing. thousands of workers joined shorter walls to form the one great wall against invaders from the north
han dynasty
han dynasty
began in 202 b.c. it wasthe golden age for chinese culture. young men moved up through skills instead of family influemce
wudi
wudi
most famous of the han emperors, ruled from 141 b.c. to 87 b.c. instead of legalism he made confucianism the official belief system of the state. he improved transportation, controlled prices, created a government monopoly on iron sand salt
expansionism
expansionism
increased chinese territory
five classics
five classics
a collection of historians, poems and handbooks, compiled from works by confucius and others
acupuncture
acupuncture
relieve pain or treat illness
subcontinent
subcontinent
a large landmass
indian subcontinent
indian subcontinent
isolated from the rest of asia, because of himalayas and hindu kush mountain ranges
ramayana and mahabharata
ramayana and mahabharata
long epic poems in sanskrit
ahimsa
ahimsa
the principle of nonviolence
hindu gods
hindu gods
brahma, vishnu, and shiva
buddhism in india
buddhism in india
it was founded there, but decline over time
calligraphy
calligraphy
the art form of beautiful writing
geographic isolation
geographic isolation
the chinese belief that china was at the center of the earth
legalism
legalism
the only way to achieve order was to pass strict laws and use harsh punishments

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