World History Chapter 30 Vocab

World History Chapter 30 Vocab

Nicholas I
clung to principles of autocracy, father of Alexander II and grandfather of Alexander III
Alexander II
father of Alexander III
Alexander III
halted all reforms in Russia formed government where he had total power, strictly censored thing in order to stop revolution, try to establish uniform Russian culture (oppress national groups)
Nicholas II
lead blood Sunday attack, launch Russia into WWI
Alexandra
wife of Nicholas II, ran government while he was away, ignored czar’s advisers
Alexis
son of Nicholas II and Alexandra, suffered from hemophilia (life- threatening disease)
Proletariat
in Marxist theory, the group of workers who would overthrow the czar and come to rule Russia
Mensheviks
moderate, wanted a broad base of popular support for the revolutions
Bolsheviks
a group of revolutionary Russian Marxist who took control of Russia’s government in November 1917
V. I. Lenin
leader of Bolsheviks, engaging personality and excellent organizer, ruthless
Leon Trotsky
revolutionary leader expertly commanded the Bolshevik Red Army
Rasputin
self-described “holy man” who claimed had magic healing powers, ease Alexis symptoms and got to make key political decisions, murdered for fear of increasing role in government affairs
Hemophilia
life threatening disease, Alexis
Siberia
reason why Russia became involved in WWI because of Slavic ties
Provisional government
a temporary government
Soviet
one of the local representative councils formed in Russia after the downfall of Czar Nicholas II
Communist Party
a political practicing the idea of Karl Marx and VI Lenin originally the Russian Bolshevik
Joseph Stalin
cold, hard, impersonal, leader of communist party, took role if dictator
Pogroms
an organized massacre
Russo-Japanese War
1904-5 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by two countries’ effects to dominate Manchuria and Korea
“Bloody Sunday”
January 22, 1905 petition in St. Petersburg where more than 1,000 wounded/ many killed, provoked strikes and violence
Duma
Russia’s first Parliament created by Nicholas II
“Peace, Land and Bread”
Lenin’s slogan
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russia and Germany, Russia surrender large part of territory, humiliation triggered anger
White Army
made up of groups who supported the return to rule by czar, wanted democratic government, socialists who oppressed Lenin’s style of socialism, a;; have desire to defeat the Bolshevik
Red Army
Bolshevik army
New Economic Party (NEP)
small scale version of capitalism, allowed peasants to sell their surplus crops instead of turning them over to the government, government control most things but supported private ownership and foreign investment
Karl Marx
philosopher with theory of communism which is a classless society after the workers seized power
Totalitarianism
government control over every aspect of public and private life
Great Purge
a campaign of terror in the Soviet Union during the 1930s in which Joseph Stalin sought to eliminate all Communist Party members and other citizens who threatened his power
Pravda
communist party newspaper that examined the purpose of art
Censorship
examine and controlling media
Command economy
an economic system, in which the government makes all economic decisions
Five-Year Plans
plans outlined by Joseph Stalin in 1928 for the development of the Soviet Union’s economy
Collective farm
a large government-controlled farm formed by combining many small farms
Kuomintang
the Chinese Nationalist Party, formed in 1912
Sun Yixian
first leader of the Kuomintang , became president of new Republic of China, consider nationalism important
“Three Principles of the People”
modern government based on 1) nationalism- an end to foreign control 2) people’s rights- democracy 3) people’s livelihood- economic
Yuan Shikai
president after Sun, quickly betrayed demorcratic ideals of the revolution, spark revolts
May Fourth Movement
a nationalist protest in China in 1919, in which people demonstrated against the Treaty of Versailles and foreign interference
Mao Zedong
an assistant librarian at Beijing University was founder of Chinese Communist Party
Jiang Jieshi (formerly called Chiang Kai-shek)
formerly called Chiang Kai-shek, son of middle class merchant, head of Kuomintang and then president of Nationalist Republic of China
“swimming in the peasant sea”
Mao’s reference of taking his revolution to the countryside
The Long March
a 6,000 mile journey made in 1934-1935 by Chinese Communist fleeing Jiang Jieshi’s Nationalist forces
Rowlatt Acts
laws passed in the 1919 that allowed the British government in India to jail anti-British protesters without trial for as long as two years
Amritsar Massacre
killing by British troops of nearly 400 Indians gathered at Amritsar to protest the Powlatt Acts
Mohandas K. Gandhi
leader of independent movement, teachings based on major world religions, non-violnece
Mahatma
followers of Mohandas K. Gandhi
Civil disobedience
a deliberate and public refusal to obey a law considered unjust
Boycott
to combine in abstaining from, or preventing dealings with, as a means of intimidation or coercion
The Salt March
a peaceful protest against the Salt Acts in 1930 in India in which Mohandas Gandhi led his followers on a 240 mile walk to the sea, where they made their own salt from evaporated seawater
Mustafa Kemal
brilliant Turkish commander, become president of New Republic of Turkey, want modern nation
“father of the Turks”
Ataturk, nickname given to Mustafa Kemal because of his strong influence
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Persia’s new leader, set out to modernize country
Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud
member of once powerful Arabian family who began successful campaign to unify Arabia, named in Saudi Arabia
Turkey
only territory of the Ottoman empire after World War I
Saudi Arabia
new name given by Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud to unified Arabia