World History- Chapter 4: Ancient Greece

polis
central focus of Greek life; city-state
oligarchy
rule by a few; type of government in Sparta.
Sophocles
Greek playwright who wrote Oedipus Rex
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Herodotus
Greek historian who wrote History of the Persian Wars.
Iliad and Odysses
epics poems written by blind poet Homer.
Cleisthenes
responsible for laying the foundation of Athenian democracy.
Thermopylae Pass
Where Spartan troops were especially brave even though the Greek army was vastly outnumbered.
Plato
According to this philosopher, individuals could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational state.
Persia
Wanted revenge against the Greeks when the Greeks had supported an uprising in colonies under Persian control.
Sophists
Sold their services as professional teachers.
Socrates
Who said, “the unexamined life is not worth living”?
Mount Olympus
Where the Greeks gods lived according to Greek religion.
Thycydides
Considered by many historians to be the greatest historian of the ancient world.
Alexander the Great
His conquests caused language, art, architecture, and literature to spread throughout Southeast Asia.
Mountains and seacoast
What physical features most influenced Greek history?
Crete
Island were the Minoan civilization emerged.
Mycenaeans
Early Greek people who most probably invaded and destroyed the Minoan civilization.
the Aeolians and Dorians
Two major groups settled within Greece itself.
Abandoned their city.
What did the Athenians do after losing the Battle of Thermopylae?
3/4
What fraction of Greece is covered by mountains?
Macedonia
Home to Alexander the Great.
Salamis
Battle where the Athenian navy was able to destroy a third of the Persian fleet in 479 B.C.
Zeus
Main Olympic god.
acropolis
used for religious festivals and as a fortress; sits atop a hill.
Darius
Persian monarch at the Battle of Marathon.
phalanx
shoulder to shoulder formation of hoplites
Tyrants
Greek rulers who seized power by force from the aristocracy.
Parthenon
regarded as the greatest example of a Greek temple.
Philip II
the father of Alexander the Great.
Ionia
the western shores of Asia Minor where many Greeks settled
Socratic method
teaching approach using question/answer
oracle
sacred shrine where priests revealed the future.
Delian League
Athenian defensive alliance.
ostracism
Athenian vote of banishment.
Marathon
starting point of Pheidippides’ 26-mile run.
Xerxes
Persian monarch.
Age of Pericles
height of Athenian power and brillance
Alexandria
Greek capital of Egypt.
Corrupting the youth
What crime was Socrates charged with?
spartan
highly self disciplined
Athena
patron goddess of Athens
arete
striving for excellence
Minoans
bronze-using peoples who lived on Crete
ephors
elected members of Sparta’s oligarchy
hoplites
heavily armed foot soldiers
Archimedes
important because of his work on the geometry of spheres and cylinders; also for establishing the value of pi
Phoenicians
gave the world the phonetic alphabet; were excellent shipbuilders.
Dorians
took over after the Mycenaean.
Triremes
sturdy ships with battering ram in front for battle.
answers vary
Causes/Results of the Peloponnesian War 431-404 B.C.
answers vary
Causes/Results of Persian Wars 499-479 B.C.

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