World History Chapter 4 Vocabulary

World History Chapter 4 Vocabulary

epic poem
a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero
arete
an honorable excellence won in a struggle or contest
polis
the Greek term for “city-state” which was the central focus of Greek life
acropolis
the fortified area on the top of the hill in a Greek city-state
agora
an open area that served as a place for people to gather and for a marketplace
hoplite
a heavily armed infantry soldier of ancient Greece
phalanx
military unit which marched shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation
tyrant
a ruler who seized power from the aristocrats
democracy
a government by the people or the rule of the many
oligarchy
a government ruled by a small group of people
helot
the slaves of ancient Sparta; literally means “captured ones”
direct democracy
a government in which every decision of the government is determined by popular vote (everyone votes on everything)
ostracism
a practice of banishing someone from the city of Athens for ten years if the people believe the person is too ambitious or dangerous to the city
ritual
a religious ceremony or right
oracle
a priest or priestess through whom ancient Greeks and Romans received advice or prophecy from the gods
tragedy
a play dealing with tragic events and having an unhappy ending
philosophy
an organized system of thought
Socratic method
teaching method that uses a question-answer format to lead students to see things for themselves by using their own reason
Hellenistic Era
a period of time during which the Greek language and ideas spread to the non-Greek world of Southwest Asia and beyond
Stoicism
a Greek philosophy that taught that happiness came from living in harmony with the will of god and from an ability to bear whatever life offered
Epicureanism
a Greek philosophy that taught that human beings ought to be free to follow their own self-interest and make happiness their goal
Classical
high point of culture or golden age of ancient Greece
Delian League
Association of Greek city-states to protect them from the Persians led by Athens
Ethics
the branch of knowledge that deals with moral principles, about what is right and wrong