World History Chapter 7 Review

Minos
Legendary king of the Minoans
Dorians
Barbarian invaders who overwhelmed the Mycenaeans
Ionians
Mycenaeans which escaped to Asia Minot and Attica
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Hellenes
Greeks of classical time who made great contributions to Western civilization
Homer
Blind Greek poet who creates the Iliad and the Odyssey
Odysseus
Brave Greek warrior hero of Homer’s Odyssey
Hesiod
Greek Poet
Zeus
Chief and father of the Greek God’s; associated with thunder and lightening
Achilles
The mythological invincible Greek warrior who died when a poisoned arrow pierced his one vulnerable spot, his heel
Darius I
Persian king who crushed the Ionian revolt in 499 B.C.; began the Greco-Persian Wars
Xerxes I
Persian king who attempted to avenge his father’s death at Marathon; defeated by the Athenian nave at Salamis
Leonidas
Spartan leader who gave his life to hold off the Persians after he was betrayed at Thermopylae
Themistocles
Brilliant Athenian who tricked Xerxes into fighting a naval battle in the narrow strait between the Greek mainland and the island of Salamis
Herodotus
Greek historian who wrote about the Persian Wars; called the “Father of Greek History”
Draco
Prepared a written code of the law for Athens
Solon
Repealed the harsh edicts of Draco, relieved debtors, redeemed many slaves, forbade parents to sell or pawn their children, ordered every father to teach his sons a trade, and required sons to support their aged father if he had educated them
Peisistratus
First tyrant of Athens
Cleisthenes
Champion of the common people; played an important part in the development of the Athenian democracy; introduced ostracism
Pericles
Brought Athenian democracy to its fullest; one of 10 annually elected generals (executive officials) who became the undisputed leader of Athens for 30 years
Phillip II
Macedonian king who conquered Greece; father of Alexander the Great
Demosthenes
One of the greatest orators the world has even known
Alexander the Great
Conquered the Persian empire and spread Greek culture from Egypt to India
Protagoras
Greek philosopher who said “Man is the measure of all things.”
Thucydides
Greek historian who was more accurate than Herodotus; wrote a history of the Peloponnesian War
Sophocles
Greek tragedian
Aristophanes
Famous comic dramatist of Greece
Aesop
Freed salve credited with introducing the fable of literature
Sophists, Relativists
Early philosophers who believed that there are no absolute truths
Socrates
Greek philosopher who sought absolutes; was forced to drink poison for his denial of Greek gods
Plato
Greek writer of philosophy who attempted to find an explanation for the obvious order, design, and purpose in the universe
Aristotle
Student of Plato and tutor of Alexander the Great; concluded that the order of the universe must have come from God
Galen
Greco-Roman physician of the second century A.D. who made important advances in medicine
Archimedes
Made important contributions to mathematics, engineering, and physics
Balkan Peninsula
Location of Greece; bounded by the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea on the east, and by the Ionian Sea on the west
Hellespont
The straits (Dardanelles) between the Black and Aegean seas
Knossos
Location of the palace of Minos, king of the Minoans, on Crete
Troy
City ear the Hellespont in Asia Minor which was destroyed by the Mycenaeans
Mount Olympus
Supposed home of the Greek gods
Marathon
Battle of the Greco-Persian Wars which not only proved that the Persians could be defeated, but also brought great prestige to Athens
Thermopylae
A narrow mountain pass where the Persians defeated the Sparta army with help of a traitor after a three-day siege
Salamis
Island off the coast of Greece where the Athenians defeated the Persians in the first major battle in history
Plataea
Where the Greeks defeated the last of Xerxes’ army
Athens
Prominent city-state of ancient Greece; modern Grecian capital
Sparta
Rival city-state of ancient Athens
Macedonia
Kingdom on the northern fringes of ancient Greece
Alexandria
Name of 16 cities that Alexander the Great named after himself
Ipsus
Location of a decisive battle, after which Alexander the Great’s empire was divided among four generals
Parthenon
Greatest of Athenian temples
Trojan War
Destruction of the city of Troy on the coast of Asia Minor by the Mycenaeans
Iliad
Homer’s epic poem which describes the heroic deeds of the ancient Greeks in their war against Troy
Odyssey
Homer’s epic poem which recounts the adventures of the Greek warrior Odysseus on his 10-year journey home after the defeat of Troy
Heroes
Characters in Homer;s poems who differed from the gods only being mortal and less powerful
Polis
A Greek-city state
City-state
A sovereign political entity
Acropolis
Hilltop fortress and a seat of government and religion
Agora
Marketplace
Barbarian
Name given to non-Greek speaking peoples
Olympic Games
Contests of skill help every fourth year at Olympia in honor of Zeus
Olympiad
The period between Olympics
Monarchy
Rule by one
Council of Elders
Group that advised the king of an ancient Greek city-state
Assembly
A mass meeting where all the citizens gathered about the kings and the elders to discuss political affair
Aristocracy
Rule by the “best”
Oligarchy
Rule by the “few rich”
Tyranny
Rule by one man who has seized power by rebellion and insurrection
Democracy
Rule by the many or the common people
Helots
Slaves; a third class of Spartan society
Peloponneseian League
An alliance formed by Sparta with Corinth, Megara, and other cities in the Peloponnesus
Court of Areopagus
Court that met on the hill known by the same name; it repealed laws, looked after public morals, and rebuked any person living in a manner unworthy of an Athenian
Ostracism
Process by which a quorum of citizens could vote to banish for 10 years any person believed to be dangerous to the state
Representative Democracy
Government in which the citizens elect a few men who represents them in the government
Direct Democracy
Government in which the citizens make to big decisions of government directly, nit indirectly through representatives
Golden Age of Greece
Age of the rule of Pericles over Athens
Delian League
League which met on the island of Delos, originally formed and later dominated by Athens for the purpose of protecting itself from Persia
Peloponnesian War
War between Sparta and Athens; began in 431 B.C. and lasted until 404 B.C.
Hellenic League
Organization of Greek city-states founded by Phillip II
Pedagogue
A well-educated slave who was put in charge of a young Greek boy’s education
Tragedy
Drama in which man is often portrayed as a victim of a fate and circumstances, devoid of a free will
Natrual Philosophy
Science
Hippocratic Oath
High code of Ethics still taken by many medical school graduates today
Absolutes
Ultimate foundational truths
The Republic
Plato’s most famous work
Koine Greek
Common language of cultures people throughout the Mediterranean world from 300 B.C. until the A.D. 400s
Attica and the Peloponnesus
The two prominent regions of ancient Greece
Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Trojans
The three main cultures of the Aegean Civilization and the location of each
Minoan
The first important European civilization after the Flood
776 B.C.
The date for the first Olympic games
490-404 B.C.
The dates for the Greco-Persian War
Battle of Salamis
The first major navel battle in history
431-404 B.C.
The dates for the Peloponnesian War
334 B.C.
The date Alexander the Great began his conquest of the Persian Empire
Ptolemies, Seleucids, and Antigonids.
The three ruling dynasties that came out of Alexander’s empire, and the area that each dynasty ruled
700s B.C. to 338 B.C.
The dates for the Hellenic Age
Pindar
The greatest lyricist of the Hellenic Age
Democritus; Pythagoras; Hippocrates
Famous Greeks who made contributions to science, mathematics, and medicine during the Hellenic Age
323-30 B.C.
The dates for the Hellenistic Age
The philosophical teachings of Stoicism and Epicureanism and the founders of each
Stoics believed that man should live according to reason, obey the law of nature, seek to do lasting good, honor all men as brothers, and remain indifferent to the pleasures and pains of life. Epicureans emphasized indulgence in one’s bodily appetites and the physical pleasures of life. The founders of these philosophers were Zeno and Epicurus, respectively.
Famous Greeks who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, and geography during the Hellenistic age
Aristarchus of Samoa-proposed the theory that the earth revolves around the sun; Euclid-systematized theorems of plane geometry; Hipparchus-formulated the basic principles of trigonometry; Archimedes-made important contributions to mathematics, engineering, and physics; Eratosthenes-calculated the circumference of the earth with astounding accuracy; Strabo-wrote a 17-volume Geography

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