World History EOC Review

World History EOC Review

Persian War
Greek city-states vs. the Persians. Persians wanted to control territory to expand their empire. 490-479 BC
Peloponnesian War
Athens vs. Sparta for dominance in the Greek city-states. 431-404 BC
Punic Wars
Roman wars to conquer western Mediterranean. 265-146 BC
Mongol Invasions
Led by Genghis Khan, Empire from CHina to Russia, largest empire in history.
The Reconquista
Christians in Spain led by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella pushed the Moors (Muslims out of Europe. 1492
English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell leads parliamentary forces to defeat King Charles, created republic but Cromwell becomes dictator. 1642-1651
The French Revolution
Inequality in class systems (all three estates), abuses by the nobility and the king, state debt and high taxes, starving peasants from crop failures. Influenced by the Enlightenment and the American Revolution. 1789-1795
Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon crowned himself emperor in 1802 and began attempts to conquer Europe. Succeeded in conquering significant portions but was unable to conquer Russia. 1803-1815
Latin American Revolutions
Seeing the success of the American Revolution, many colonies began to break away from European mother countries.
Russian Revolution
Series of revolutions in 1917. Caused by widespread discontent in all classes of Russia, revolutionaries agitating for change, weak leadership by Czar Nicholas II, heavy losses in WWI, food and fuel shortages during WWI.
Free Enterprise
Consumer demands drives production. ex. US
Communism
Strong government planning and control of the production and distribution of goods and services. ex. China
Socialism
Collective social control of production planned by group. ex. Switzerland
Traditional Economy
Production of just enough to live on, subsistence level agriculture. Use of trading instead of money. ex. some third world countries
Democracy
Government controlled by its citizens
Totalitarianism
Government controls every aspect of public and private life.
Absolute Monarchy
King and or Queen have absolute power.
Limited Monarchy
King and or Queen have limited power.
Theocracy
Ruler controls both religious and political affairs and is seen as divine.
Oligarchy
Rule by a few, based on wealth.
Hinduism
Originated in India, believes in reincarnation, karma, believes Ganges River washes away all sin, and cow is considered sacred.
Buddhism
Buddha taught the 4 Noble Truths, the 8-Fold Path, and nirvana or bliss.
Judaism
Monotheistic based on the teaching of Jesus out of the Torah, only the Old Testament.
Confucianism
Confucius taught relationships have obligations such as filial piety, love shown to parents, to get you to the Mandate of Heaven.
Islam
Muhammad, Five Pillars of Islam, pilgrimage to Mecca, use of the Quran.
Sikhism
Combination of Islamic and Hindu beliefs.
Al-Qaeda
Terrorist Organization found be Osama bin Laden
Archimedes
Greek mathematician who studied density, levers, pulleys, and invented a screw water pump device
Thomas Aquinas
Christian philosopher whose thoughts influenced politics; believed that truth is known through faith and reason, people have right to challenge unjust laws.
William Blackstone
English judge whose writing helped explained the common law and defined rights of individuals.
Siman Bollvar
Independence leader in South America against the Spanish
Napoleon
Emperor of France who conquered much of Europe, sparking the Napoleonic Wars; his law code became foundation of many modern European laws.
Robert Boyle
Father of Chemistry
John Calvin
Began Protestant religion in Geneva; taught predestination, faith is key to salvation, strict moral code; established theocracy.
Churchill
British Prime Minister during WWII
Copernicus
Proposed heliocentricity (Sun is center of solar system)
Marie Curie
First woman to win Nobel Prize for radioactive studies
Thomas Edison
invented light bulb, phonograph, motion pictures
Einstein
Discovered space and time are relative; contributed to the development of atomic bomb
Queen Elizabeth I
Created a strong, centralized monarchy based on national unity and sharing powers between monarchy and Parliament; Golden Age of England, supported by arts
Eratosthenes
Greek geographer who showed that Earth was round and also calculated the circumference
Galileo
Studied motion; telescope observations confirmed Copernican theory; tried and convicted of heresy by the Catholic Church
India Gandhi
First female Prime Minister of India
Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of Indian independence movements, non-violent resistance
Mikhail Gorbachev
Reformed USSR, leading to the election of non-Communistic governments in Eastern Europe and the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Hammurabi
Creator of the first written law code in history
Thomas Hobbes
Enlightenment philosipher
Thomas Jefferson
Author of Declaration of Independence
Justinian
Byzantine leader, Justinian Code of Laws
John Locke
Believed people should be able to through over the government
Golda Meir
First Prime Minister of Israel
Montesquieu
Believed in separation of powers
Louis Pasteur
Diseases are caused by germs, developed vaccines
Oscar Romero
Catholic Archbishop, spoke out against poverty