World History Final Exam Study Guide

The Earliest human-like creatures, which lived in Africa as long as three to four million years ago are called _______.
Australopithecus
The study of past societies through an analysis of what people call ________.
Archeology
The first civilization developed _______________.
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The following are the basic characteristics of civilization.
cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, and art
How did the Neolithic Revolution affect the relationshi between men and women?
Men herded and farmed; women raised children
What ancient ruler created a code of laws based on a system of justice?
Hammurabi
What do historians believe is the earliest system of writing to emerge in ancient civilization?
cuneiform
The attack of what people brought Egypt’s Middle Kingdom to and end?
Hyksos
The Summerians believed that gods ruled the cities, making the state a government by divine authority, or _______.
theocracy
The Sumerians are credited with inventing all of the following.
the wagon wheel, the potters wheel, and bronze
The term Aryan was originally used to describe which of the following groups of people?
nomads
Which Hindu concept describes the divine law that requires all people to do their dity?
dharma
What role did the mountains and sea play in the developnment of Greek history?
the mountains are the home of olympus ad the sea made trade ports
What type of government did the city-state of Sparta have?
obligarchy
All of the following were ways by which ancient Greeks interacted with their gods.
rituals, festivals, and oracles
Whic mountain range in Italy forms a ridge that divides west from east?
Apennines
In early Roman government, what officials were given the power to protect the plebeians?
patricians
Who became the first Roman emperor?
Julius Caesar; then Augustus Caesar
Which Roman ruler adopted Christianity as the offical Realign of the Roman Empire?
Constantine the Great
Which of the following was a factor in the decline of the Western Roman Empire?
1.) Christianity’s emphasis on a spiritual kingdom weakened Roman military virtues.
2.) Traditional Roman values declined as non-Italians gained prominence in the empire.
3.) Lead poisoning through leaden water pipes and cups caused a mental decline in the population.
4.) Plague wiped out one-tenth of the population.
5.) Rome failed to advance technologically due to slavery.
6.) Rome could not create a workable political system.
A form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote is a ______________.
republic
What is the Quran?
the holy book of Islam
The following are the Five Pillars of Islam.
Belief, Prayer, Charity, Fasting, Pilgrimage
What Middle Eastern writer composed the Rubaiyat?
Omar Khayyám
Islam is similar to Christianity in all of the following ways.
monotheistic, has angels and demons, virgin birth of Jesus and crucifixion, eternal heaven or hell
What was the first great trading state in Africa?
Ghana
Which group of migrants is believed to have introduced iron working techniques in eastern and southern Africa?
Bantu
Why were story tellers important in African societies?
They told religious and folk legends from generation to generation.
A society where descent is traced through the father is called a __________.
patrilinealage
What was the key factor in Songhai’s rise to power?
the army’s conquests
What Mongolian ruler created the largest land empire in history?
Kublai Khan
Which of the following was the main island of early Japan?
Honshu
Most significant during the Tang and Song dynasties was the rise of the scholar gentry, who was ________________.
the political and Economic elite of Chinese society
What was the principal source of wealth in India between 500 and 1500?
agriculture
Which king was forced to sign the Magna Carta?
King John
Which pope fought the practice of lay investiture?
Pope Gregory VII
What was the most highly regarded subject of the medieval unicersity?
theology
The following are factors in France winning the Hundred Years’ War.
defeats of English armies in Normandy and Aquitaine, the use of the cannon, Joan of Arc, and the Battle of Castillon
Many scholars believe that a land bridge in the Bering Strait allowed people from what continent to cross into North America?
Asia
What was the first major city in Mesoamerica?
Teotihuacan
what early civilization in South America built Macho Picchu?
Inca
What crops farmed by the Iroquois were known as the “three sisters”?
corn, beans, and squash
Who emerged as a dominant force in Italy after the Italian wars?
Spanish
All of the following are the three associated with the High Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
Who was the first person to sail around the world?
Joshua Slocum
The following are motives for European Expansion.
God, money, and trade(spices,etc.)
Between what two countries did the Treaty of Tordesillas divide the newly discovered land?
Spain and Portugal
Christopher Columbus explored the following islands:
the major Caribbean islands, Cuba, Hispaniola, and Honduras
The demand for slaves increased when _________________.
America was discovered and sugarcane was grown.
What were known in Europe as the Spice Islands?
Moluccas
A political system in which a ruler holds total power is called ____________________.
absolutism
The fleet of warships sent by Spanish King Philip II to invade England was called _______.
The Spanish Armada
What Russian czar attempted to westernize Russia?
Peter the Great
Under which Ottoman ruler did the Turks gain control of Constantinople?
Mehmed II
Which group used the East India Company to gain power, influence, and profit in India?
British
Upon the completion of the Grand Canal, the Chinese were able to ship goods __________.
to northern China
What economic change took place in Japan under the Tokugawa?
a merchant class evolved
All of the following are factors that led to peasant unrest and an eventual revolt that ended the Ming dynasty.
the suffering of the epidemic, high taxes, and and power struggles
Who is considered the founder of the European and American movement for women’s rights?
Emmeline Pankhurst
Where did Catherine the Great rule from 1762 to 1796?
Russia
Which reform was made by the National Assembly?
the establishment of public trials, the establishment of freedom of the press, the elimination of internal tariffs
The Industrial Revolution begain in the 1780’s in ___________.
England/Great Britian
Who issued an emancipation edict, freeing Russian serfs?
Alexander II
A system in which society owns and controls the means of production is called __________.
socialism
What invention made ocean liners, airplanes, and the automobile possible?
internal-combustion engine
Who believed at a struggle between the middle class and the working class would ultimately produce a classless society?
Karl Marx
All of the following were factors that opened the door to new jobs for women.
second industrial revolution,expansion of government services, and lack of men to fill white-collar jobs
All of the following territories were acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War.
Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, and Cuba
By 1907, Great Britain, France, and Russia joined together to form the __________.
Triple Entente
Slavery was abolished in all major countries of the world by _____________.
Slavery Abolition Act of 1833
What was the only remaining free state in Southeast Asia after the French conquest of Indochina?
Thailand
What was Great Britain’s primary interest in the Suez Canal?
they believed it was their lifetime in India
What was a benefit of British Rule in India?
Established on of the the world’s third largest railroad network; Developed a modern economy; Schools and Colleges were founded; Sanitation and public health improved; End to local warfare; Network of telephones, telegraph line, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals; Political stability
What ensured equal access to the Chinese market for all nations?
the Open Door Policy
What was the “Serbian Problem?”
They went to war with Austria-Hungary
What new technology was used in battle during World War I for the first time in history?
indirect counter-battery fire
What was the final peace settlement of WWI called?
The Treaty of Versailles
The following were results of World War I.
Many nations were unhappy with the peace settlement
A coalition of leftist parties – Communists, Socialists, and Radicals – formed what government in France in 1936?
Socialist Party
Who was the founder of the Fascist movement and dreamed of making Italy a great nation?
Benito Mussolini
What invention, discovered by Marconi, led the way for a revolution in mass communication?
radio
What did the Balfour Declaration promote?
declared that the British favored a Jewish homeland in Palestine
What brought an end to the Communist-Nationalist alliance?
Shanghai Massacre
What positive impact did the Great Depression have in Latin America?
It made Latin America learn support themselves
What caused the German army to halt its attack on the Soviet Union?
The Soviet Union counter-attacked
The Cold War was primarily an ideological conflict between the United States and ______________.
Soviet Union
What was the only country to use women to fight in World War II?
United States
Which of the following was a part of the Nazi’s Final Solution.
Genocide of Jews
What was the goal of the policy of containment?
stop the spread of communism
Which Soviet leader brought and end to the Cold War?
Mikhail Gorbachev
What two countries were formed when Czechoslovakia split?
Czech Republic and Slovakia
What group suffered under a Serbian policy of ethnic cleansing?
Cham Muslims
In the 1950s, who led a strong opposition movement to overthrow the government in Cuba?
Iran
To what new cash crop have some Colombian peasants turned?
palm oil
Who took control of Panama in 1983?
Antonio Noriega
Whites in South Africa create a system of racial segregation known as _______?
Apartheid
What country did Great Britain, France, and Israel attack to start the Suez War of 1956?
Egypt
Why did Israel attack Egypt in 1967?
The Suez War
What countries agreed to divide Korea into two zones at the 38th Parallel?
United States and Soviet Union
Why did the United States enter the Vietnam War?
To help fight communism
The development of new strains of rice, corn, and other grains that have greater yields is referred to as the _______.
Wheat middlings
What is the only global international orgainzation that deals with the rules of trade between nations?
World Trade Organization
The leader of the revolutionists in Cuba was _________.
Castro
Castro signed a pact with ______.
The United States

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