World History I: Vocabulary Words

World History I: Vocabulary Words

Politics
the art or science of government
Economics
the study of the consumption and production of goods and services
Social Sciences
tools we use to understand human interaction
Culture
a shared set of feelings or habits that unify a group
Religion
one’s belief; belief shared by a community
Ethical Systems
what a group of people believe to be right or wrong
Language
a mutually acknowledged system of communication
Geography
the distribution of people, animals, plants, resources, and industry around the world
Technology
use of metal and power sources to make tools, weapons, and other products
Primary Source
a first-hand account of an event (ex: Anne Frank’s Diary)
Secondary Source
a second-hand account of an event (ex: a biography about Steve Jobs)
Bias
a personal opinion which affects fact
Oral History
stories passed down from generation to generation orally (unwritten)
B.C./B.C.E.
Before Common Era
A.D./C.E.
Common Era
Monotheism
a religion that only believes in one God
Judaism
a monotheistic religion which Christianity broke off from
Torah
the Hebrew sacred text
Abraham
a biblical figure who was told by God to sacrifice his son, only to later find that God was testing his loyalty (Abraham just got punked!)
Convenant
Diaspora
Ten Commandments
a set of rules God gave to Moses to spread, which affects daily behavior and life
Passover
a Jewish holiday which originated from the story of Moses leading the Jews out of Egypt
Christianity
a monotheistic religion with its roots from Judaism, which believes that Jesus was the son of God
Messiah
someone who tries to spread the word of a religion
Jesus
the son of God who tried to teach the teachings of God and was crucified then later ascended to heaven
Parable
a story with a moral
St. Paul
a biblical figure who spent his life travelling anf converting gentiles to Christianity
Gentile
someone who doesn’t have a defined religion
Martyr
someone who died for a cause
Constatine
the Roman emperor who converted to Christianity and made it legal after seeing a white cross in the sky during a battle
Edict of Milan
Catholic
a branch of Christianity
Protestant
a branch of Christianity which was formed after it was believed that Catholisism focused too much on material goods
Eastern Orthodox
Islam
a monotheistic religion originating in the Arabic regions
Muslim
a person who follows the faith of Islam
Muhammod
the messanger of the Islamic God (Allah)
Quran
the sacred text of the Islam faith
Mosque
the Islam house of worship
Five Pillars
five parts of Islam a Muslim must follow
Kaaba
Haj
the pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest Islam city
Shariah
Vedas
Hindu hymns of prayer
Caste System
a system of class by which people are organized into
Hinduism
a polytheistic religion that originated in India
Brahman
a priestly class that came from Prusha’s mouth that is ranked highest in Hindu society; the guardians of Hindu traditions
Atman
the state of one’s soul
Karma
cumulative impact on one’s actions
Dharma
both spiritual and practical sacred duties of a being
Reincarnation
rebirth into another living form
Samsara
continuing the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth
Moksha
the goal of Hindus: release from samsara; the merging of an individual’s soul (atman) with the universal soul (Brahman)
Yoga
a practice of mental discipline, which relaxes the soul through meditation and streching
Ahimsa
emotional and physical injury
Siddhartha Gautama
the Indian prince who founded Buddhism
Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama’s name; “the enlightened one”
Buddhism
a religion that was created by Siddhartha Gautama, which believes that all life is full of suffering
Four Noble Truths
1. life is full of suffering
2. all suffering has an origin; material goods
3. suffering can stop
4. followers must follow the Eightfold Path to cease suffering
Eightfold Path
a set of values Buddhists must follow:
1. right view
2. right attitude
3. right speech
4. right action
5. right livelihood
6. right effort
7. right mind
8. right concentration
Middle Way
the middle ground between the extremities
Nirvana
a Buddhist’s goal: the state of enlightenment
Ascetic
people who meditate, fast, and deny all sorts of comfort
Jainism
a religion that originated from Hinduism, which puts less emphasis on ritual
Sikhism
a monotheistic religion which embraces Hinduism and Islam
Legitimacy
people whose power and authority are accepted by the people they govern
Mandate of Heaven
a doctrine of legitimacy, which says that all Chinese rulers were “sons of heaven”
Dynasty
a family of rulers
Legalism
a totalitarian form of power, which one ruler rules by force
Confucianism
a philosophy created by Kong-Fu-Zi saying that the perfect society is like a family
Calligraphy