World History II Sol Review

Jesus
1. Christianity
2. The son of god
3. Teachings and life are found in New testament
Torah
1. Sacred text of the Jews
Muhammad
1. Prophet of Islam
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Five Pillars
1. Profession of Faith
2. Fast during Ramadan
3. Go on a Hajj to Mecca
4. Alms to the poor
5. Pray 5 times a day
Monotheism
Belief in one god
Koran (Qu’aran)
Holy book of Islam
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
Founder of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths
Main belief of Buddhism
Life is suffering
Eightfold Path
Follow to reach Nirvana
Caste System
Strict division of classes in Hinduism
Reincarnation
Belief that your soul will be reborn based on your Karma (in Buddhism and Hinduism)
Renaissance
Means re-birth
Start of modern Era
Spread from Italy to Northern Europe
Michelangelo
Painted the Sistine Chapel Ceiling and sculpted David
Leonardo da Vinci
Ultimate Renaissance Man
Painted Last Supper and Mona Lisa
Shakespeare
Wrote plays and sonnets during the Renaissance
Humanism
Revival of ancient Greek and Roman culture
Erasmus = father of ______
Celebrate humans potential
Erasmus
A humanist, wrote In Praise of Folly
Reformation
Attempts to reform the Catholic Church.
Martin Luther
Founder of Protestants, Salvation by Faith alone, Importance of the bible (in the vernacular)
95 Theses
Martin Luther’s main ideas
Starts the Reformation
John Calvin
Faith reveled by living a righteous life, expansion of protestant movement, followers were Calvinists
Huguenots
French Protestants
Predestination
John Calvin’s main idea
God has pre-determined everything
Henry VIII
English King, became head of Anglican church, wanted a divorce, made church property his
Queen Elizabeth I
Tolerance for dissenters, head of Anglican Church.
Religiously tolerant
Victory of Spanish Armada
Expansion and colonialism
Reformation in Germany
a.Princes in Northern Germany converted to Protestantism, ending authority of Pope
b.Hapsburg Family remained loyal to Catholic Church
c.Conflict led to 30 years war
Reformation in France
a.Catholic kings gave Protestants freedom to worship – Edict of Nantes
b.Cardinal Richelieu changes focus of 30 yrs war from religious to political
Thirty Years War
Devestating war between Protestants and Catholics.
Anglican Church
Protestant Church in England
Led by Eliz I started by Henry VIII
Edict of Nantes
Allowed Huguenots to practice their religion. A sense of Freedom of religion, later revoked
Counter Reformation
a.An attempt of the Catholic Church to reform
b.Use of the Inquisition
c.Council of Trent – reaffirms practices and doctrine
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
a.Founded during the Catholic Counter Reformation
b.Used to spread Catholicism around the world.
Gutenberg Printing Press
a.Used to spread ideas of the Reformation and the Renaissance
b.First documented printed was the Bible
c.Led to the growth of literacy (people knowing how to read)
Factors leading to exploration
a.Demand for goods/spices/natural resources
b.Spread of Christianity, political/economic competition in Europe
c.Innovations in navigation (Europe and Muslim), Prince Henry the Navigator
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese, Rounded Cape of Good Hope in Africa
Christopher Columbus
Spain, “found” the new world
Hernando Cortez
Spain, conquered the Aztecs in Mexico. Conquestador
Ferdinand Magellan
Spain, First to circumnavigate the globe
Fransisco Pizzarro
Spain, Conquered the Inca in South America
Francis Drake
English, First man to survive circum-navigating the globe
Jacques Cartier
French, explored Canada
Prince Henry the Navigator
Founded a school to teach navigation
Spread/diffusion of Christianity
Migration of colonists/influence of colonists who brought faith, language, culture to new lands. Conversion of native people
Impact of discovery of Americas
a.End of Aztecs and Incas
b.European emigration/rigid class structure and dictatorial rule in Lat. Am.
c.Colonies imitate culture/social patterns of parent countries
d.Forced migration of enslaved Africans
Impact of discovery on Africa
European trading posts on coasts
Slaves, gold, resources
Impact of discovery on Asia
Colonization by small group of merchants, Influence of trading compaines
Trading Companies
Founded by British, Dutch, French
Were in Indies and in China
Columbian Exchange
a.An exchange of products and resources between the eastern and western hemispheres
b.Corn(maize), Potatoes, and Tobacco were introduced to Europe
c.European horses and Cattle were introduced to the Americas
d.ALSO- diseases!!
Impact of Columbian Exchange
a.Shortage of labor led to use of slaves (based on race)
b.European plantation system in Caribbean/Americas destroyed native economies/environment
Triangle Trade
a.Linked Europe, Africa, and America
b.Slaves, sugar and rum
c.Gold and silver exported to Europe and Asia
d.Spain’s economy collapses after importing so much gold/silver
China
Creation of spheres of influence by foreign powers for trade/resources
Increase in demands for goods (tea, porcelin)
Shogun
Japan, Military leader who controlled a powerless emporer
Isolationism
policy of a country trying to limit foreign influences. (Japan)
Ottoman Empire
a.In Central Asia, expands to Asia, Balkans, North Africa
b.Capital- Istanbul (Constantinople)
c.Islamic religion, accepted others
d.Coffee and ceramic
Mughal Empire
North India, Islam, Taj Mahal, Establishment of trading posts by Europeans, textiles important to GB.
Traded silk/spices/gems
Mercantilism
An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers
Colonies exist to benefit the mother country
Commercial Revolution
Overseas trade, new banking and money systems, use of mercantilism
Nicolas Copernicus
Heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler
Discovered planets move in eliptical orbits
The laws of planetary motion
Galileo
Telescope used to prove Heliocentric Theory
Isaac Newton
Discovered laws of gravity
William Harvey
Discovered the circulation of blood
Scientific Revolution
Expanded scientific knowledge, development of the scientific method, empahsis on reason and systematic observation of the future
Divine Right
Absolute monarchs believed god chose them
Louis XIV
France, Palace of Versailles-symbol of royal power
Frederick the Great
Prussia, Military Power, helped support education
Peter the Great
Russia, Westernizing of Rusisia, St. Petersburg
Charles I
English King who was beheaded
Led to the English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell
Led England as Lord-not King.
Charles II
Restored to the British throne
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary take the throne
No bloodshed
Sign the English Bill of Rights 1689
English Bill of Rights
Reduced the power of the monarch
Increased the power of the Parliament
Enlightenment
Applied reason to the human world
Stimulated religious tolerance
Fueled the American and French Revolution
Thomas Hobbes
The Leviathan
State must have central authority-Absolutism
John Locke
Two Treatises on Government
Life, Liberty, and Property
Government gets its power fromthe consent of the people
Montesquieu
The Spirit of the Laws
Seperation of Powers
Voltaire
Religious toleration, Seperation of Church and State
Jefferson
Declaration of Independence author, used Enlightenment ideas
US constitution and Bill of Rights
Untied States used enlightenment ideas for these two important documents (not including declaration)
Louis XVI
Monarch that was overthrown in the French Revolution
Events of the French Rev.
Storming of the Bastille-started rev.
Reign of Terror
Toussaint L’Ouverture
Former slave who led independence movements in Haiti.
Defeated armies of Spain, France, and Britain
Simon Bolivar
He led an independence movement in South America
Mexican Independence
Started by Father Hildago
Colonial systems in Latin America
Governments mirrored home govs.
Catholic, mining econ, Cities outposts for trade (Havana, Mexico City, Lima)
Class Structure of Latin America
Viceroys/colonial officials
Creoles and Mestizos
Monroe Doctrine
US President Monroe 1823 issues this, Latin America independent, US would consider European interference a threat to US of A.
Bach
Baroque music composer
Mozart
Classical music composer
Eugene Delacroix
Painter, Liberty Leading the People
Miguel Cervantes
Wrote the first novel Don Quixote
Technology changes 16th-18th centuries
All-weathered roads for better travel, New farm tools increase productivity, improvements in ship design lowre costs of transportation
Napoleon
Leader of France, Built up the French Empire, Created the Napoleonic Code, Strong Nationalism
Congress of Vienna
“Balance of Power”, Restoration of monarchs, New political map of Europe, new political philosophies (liberalism, conservatism)
GB reform in 1800s
Avoided revolution by expanding political rights, Made slavery illegal by the British empire
Count Cavour
Unified northern Italy through diplomatic treaties
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Unified Southern Italy with his red shirts through war
Otto von Bismarck
Unified Germany (Franco-Prussian war) Was a Realpolitik
Realpolitik
Someone who justifies all means to achieve adn hold power
Industrial Revolution
1. Began in England (resources) and invention of steam engine
2. Spread to US and Europe
3. Cotton, textile, iron, steel
4. Rise of factory system, end of cottage industry
5. Need for control of materials/markets worldwide
James Hargreaves
Spinning Jenny
James Watt
Steam engine
Eli Whitney
Cotton Gin
Henry Bessemer
Process for making strong steel
Edward Jenner
Small-Pox vaccine
Louis Pasteur
Discovered bacteria
Impacts of Industrial Rev.
a.Population increase, growth of middle class, standard of living increases for many
b.Improved transportation, education
c.Urbanization, pollution
d.Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions
Adam Smith
Wrote Wealth of Nations
Capitalism
Capitalism
Market controlled economy
Can lead to dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and unequal distribution of wealth
Karl Marx
Wrote Communist Manifesto and Das Capital (with Friedrich Engels)
Socialism/Communism
Response to injustices of capitalism. Importance of redistribution of wealth
Factory System
Replaced cottage system
Men competed for jobs against women/children
Child Labor
Impact of Inustrial Rev.
Increased demand for slave labor-cotton gin
Britain and US outlaw slave trade then slavery
Women and children work for cheap
Reforms to end child labor, expand education, increased demand for women’s suffrage
Labor Unions
a.Encouraged strikes to demand wages & better working conditions
b.Lobby for laws to protect the worker
c.More rights for workers
Imperialsim
a.When a European nation took over a nation in Africa, Asia, or South America for Europe’s benefit
b.Could be colonies, protectorates, or spheres of influence
Imperialism in Africa/Asia
European domination, conflicts, missionary efforts
Suez canal, spheres of influence (China), East India Company, US opening Japan to trade
Response of Colonized Peoples
Armed conflicts (Boxer rebellion), rise of nationalism (Indian National Congress)
Causes of WWI
Alliances, Nationalism, diplomatic failures, imperialism, miltarism, competiton over colonies
ARchduke Franz Ferdinand
Assassinated to begin WWI
Woodrow Wilson
US President
14 Points for Peace (Leauge of Nations)
Kaiser Wilhelm II
German ruler in WWI
Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire
Central Powers in WWI
Russia, US, Britain, and France
Allied Powers in WWI
Treaty of Versailles
Harsh Treaty that ended WWI
Made Germany accept guilt for the war and pay huge reparations
Causes of Russian Rev.
Defeat in Russo-Japanese War 1905, landless peasants, military defeats/casualties in WWI
Incompetence of Nicholas II, all led to..
Bolshevik Revolution
When Vladimir Lenin and the Communists take over Russia
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Lenin’s idea to better Russia’s economy
Joseph Stalin
Brutal Totalitarian Dictator (Great Purge), 5-year plans, Collectivization of Farms
League of Nations
Wilson’s idea to help prevent future wars, US not a member, Did not have power to enforce decisions
Mandate System
Britain adn France would control areas in Middle East, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Division of Ottoman Empire sets stage for future conflicts in the Middle East
World Wide Depression
Causes: German reparations, excessive credit, stock market crash of 1929
Impacts: high unemployment, bank failures, and collapse of credit/trade, rise of Nazis
Nazi Party
In Germany, Led by Hitler, Blamed the Jewish people for all problems
Adolf Hitler
Leader of Germany, Nazi, Wanted tol expand Germany
Benito Mussolini
Fascism, Restore the glory of ancient Rome, Invaded Ethiopia
Hirohito adn Hideki Tojo
Militaristic in Japan, Expanded Japan into Manchuria, China, and Korea for materials
Causes of WWII
Aggression (Italy, Germany, Japan), and Appeasement
Nationalism, Failure of Treaty of Versailles, weakeness of Leauge of Nations
Pearl Harbor
Japanese attack, Makes USA enter the war
D-Day
Allied invasion of France
Franklin D. Roosevelt
US President for most of WWII
Harry Truman
US president after FDR, decided to drop the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Allied commander in Europe, planned D-Day.
Douglas MacArthur
US general in the Pacific, monitored the rebuilding of Japan
George Marshall
US General, created plan for rebuilding Europe (Marshall plan)
Winston Churchill
British Prime Minister
Genocide
Systematic destruction of a political, religious, racial, or culture group. Armenians, Great Purge, Tutsi by Hutu, Pol Pot
Holocaust
History of anti-Semitism in Europe, totalitarianism combined with nationalism, WWI and depression blamed on German Jews, Hitler’s Master Race, Final Solution: concentration/death camps
Marshall Plan
Economic Recovery Package for Europe
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Major events of WWII
Germany invades Poland, Soviet Union
Fall of France, Battle of Briatin, D-Day
Pearl Harbor, dropped atomic bombs
Warsaw Pact
Communism and Totalitarianism
Division of Germany
Germany divided between the Allies and the Soviets
East (Soviet controlled) adn West (democratic) Germany
Reconstruction of Japan
Occupied by US (MacArthur), reduction of military
Democracy, emergnece as a dominant economy
Containment
Policy for preventing the expansion of communism
Chiang Kai-Shek
Leader of Nationalist China
Fled to the Island of Taiwan
Mao Zedong
Leader of Communist China
Korean War
Divided at 37th parallel
N. Korea (communist) invaded S. Korea
UN under Marshall intervenes. China helps N. Korea
Ho Chi Minh
Leader of communists in Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam divided
N. Vietnam communist under Ho Chi Minh
US involvement (ultimately failed)
Vietnam a reunited communist country today
End of Cold War
Tearing down of Berlin Wall in 1989
Soviet economic collapse, breakup of Soviet Union
Nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries, expansion of NATO
Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of Indian independence movement
Civil Disobedience and Passive resistance
Indira Gandhi
Closer relationship between India and USSR during the Cold War
Developed nuclear program
Indian Independence
Formeryly ruled by Britain
Indian National Congress, Mohandes Gandhi (Civil disobedience)
Political divisions along Hindu-Muslim lines (Pakistan/India)
Republic of India
World’s largest democracy, federal system of government
Jawaharlal Nehru-western style industrialization, new econ. development
Kenyatta
Leader of Kenyan nationalist group
Became the leader of Kenya
Nelson Mandela
Led struggle against apartheid, became first black prez. of South Africa
Golda Meir
Prime minister of Israel
Sought support of US
Led Israel to victory in Yom Kippur War
Gamal Abdul Nasser
President of Egypt
Nationalized Suez Canal, relationship with USSR
Aswan High Dam

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