Briefly summarize the causes and effects of imperialism:
Nationalism- a want to gain power leads to Colonization – Europeans control land and people around the world

Economic Competition- demand for materials and markets leads to Colonial Economics- Euro’s control trade and set up cash crop economies in colonies

Missionary Spirit – spread Christianity leads to Christianization throughout Africa, Asia, and India

What would industrialization do to many European countries?
Make them seek new markets
What was the makeup of Africa before imperialism?
Africa was deeply divided and could not match many of the European Advances in technology
What things prevented Europeans from colonizes Africa earlier?
Disease, hard to navigate rivers, African resistance
What were the forces that began to drive imperialism in Africa?
A need for new materials and markets to sell European goods
What types of goods were sought after in Africa?
Raw materials, rubber, diamonds, and gold
What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?
To lay out the ground rules for the division of Africa
What was Africa a good source for? What area did it lack in?
Materials. Good Markets
What conflict would symbolize the trouble brought on by imperialism?
Boer War
What are the 4 different types of imperialism? Briefly describe each.
Colony- Country or territory that is governed internally by another country
Protectorate-area that has its own government, but is under the control of another outside government
Sphere of Influence – Area where a stronger country will assert right for trade
Economic Imperialism- occurs when private businesses control a country or territory
Describe the difference between direct and indirect management:
Direct – Foreign officials rule, no self rule, goal is assimilation, gov’t institutions based only on Euro styles

Indirect- local gov’t officials used, limited self rule, goal is to develop future leaders, gov’t institutions based on euro styles but have local rules

Please name and describe the 4 major causes of WWI
How did Imperialism contribute to the fighting in WWI?
Competition for markets, led to increased competition between nations
Make a chart showing the different alliance before and after 1914, list the countries in each alliance
Pre 1914
Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple Entente – France, Great Britain, Russia
Post 1914
Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman empire
Allies – France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan, US
What area in Europe was very volatile because of nationalism and the conflicting interests of Austria Hungary and Russia? What was its nickname?
Balkan Peninsula- Powder Keg
What was the spark of WWI? Please be as specific as possible!!!
Assassination of Austria-Hungary heir to throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife, by Serbian Gavrilo Princip, in Sarajevo, Bosnia
Highlight the differences in fighting on the western and eastern fronts:
Eastern front was more mobile than the trenches on the western front
What was the Schliefen Plan? Was it successful? What did this mean for Germany?
Germany’s plan to quickly defeat France , and rush to the eastern front to fight Russia. No. Forced Germany to fight a two front war
What military maneuver symbolized fighting on the Western Front?
Trench Warfare
List new war technologies seen in WWI, what did people think these new technologies would do? What actually happened?
Machine guns, tanks, airplanes. Speed up the war but actually just accounted for higher death tolls.
What was Russia’s major weakness heading into WWI? What was their greatest strength?
Their lack of industrialization, their number of soldiers
What was the Gallipoli campaign? Was it successful?
An allied attempt to take the strait of dardenelles to create a supply line to Russia, No
Why did the colonies of the major nations involve themselves in WWI?
In hopes of gaining Independence
Please trace U.S. entry into WWI:
Unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany sank the Civilian passenger ship the Lucientania, and then the interception of the Zimmerman Note pushed the US into the War
Why would the U.S. enter on the side of the Allied Powers?
Closer economic connections
What were some of the ways that governments waged total war?
Rationing, propaganda, all manufacturing for war
27. How did the role of women change during wartime?
Began to work in industries, previously worked by men
Why did Russia withdraw from the war in 1917?
Unable to keep up with the means of production, Revolution takes over and Lenin withdraws
After Russia withdraws, what do the Germans try to do?
Crush Paris, by moving all troops to western front
Why aren’t they successful?
US troops arrive, in Europe
When does WWI come to an end?
Novemeber 11, 1918
Please describe the legacy of WWI:
8 million dead, treaty left people feeling bitter and failed to solve problems of war, planted seeds for future conflict
Where did many nations meet to decide the fate of Germany?
Berlin Conference
Who were the big four?
Wilson, Clemenceau, Lloyd George, Orlando
What was President Wilson’s plan for a peace settlement?
14 points
What important organization would come from his plan?
League of Nations
What was the name of the treaty that would end WWI? Please describe the treaty.
Treaty of Versailles, forced Germany to take guilt and pay reperations, lost territory and limited there treaty
What did the treaty do to Germany? What did this and other treaties do to the geography of Europe?
See number 37, it created several new nations
Why is this peace considered a flawed peace?
Because the treaty failed to solve many of the problems that forced ww1, and actually led to start of WW2