World History Midterm Study Guide Right Answers

World History Midterm Study Guide Right Answers

What can result from migration, trade, and warfare?
Cultural Diffusion
What is created when a ruler conquers many cities and villages?
An empire
What is one way in which nomadic cultures differed from civilizations?
Nomads moved around a lot and did not build cities
Why was Hammurabi’s Code important?
It was the first time that a state’s laws were set down in writing
How did the beliefs of the Hebrews differ from those of most nearby peoples?
The believed in one all-powerful god
The world’s first civilization developed between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, in what citystate?
Sumer
What were the Four Noble Truth’s that Buddhist believed in?
All life is full of sufering, pain, and sorrow. It comes from desiring things. You can remove the sufering from not desiring things. You can remove the desires by following the eightfold path.
What is the philosophy of Daoism concerned with?
Living in harmony with nature
Hindus believe that the ultimate goal of existence is what?
Achieving Moksha, or union with Brahman
Confucius believed in filial piety, which was what?
Younger people should respect their elders
What was a Greek citystate called?
Polis
What was the Greek military fighting formation?
Phalanx
What form of government, rule by a few, was practiced in Sparta?
Oligarchy
Blending of Greek culture with Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultures was called what?
Hellenism
Who were the early Greeks that were great sailors, helped spread Greek civilization, and started the Trojan war?
Myceneans
Which Greeks revolted against the Persians, with the help of the Athenians, sparking the GrecoPersian Wars?
Ionians
What was the Roman military division of 5,000 soldiers called?
Legions
Who won the Peloponnesian war?
Spartans
Fortified hilltop that was center of a Greek citystate and location of the temples.
Acropolis
How was ancient Greek civilization and culture affected by geography?
People lived near the Sea, and the Greeks would become good sailors. A Mountainous region divided the Greek people
Moderate climates would lead to the Greeks developing an outdoor society
What was the structure of the Greek citystate?
Was small in size, had a small population, was built on a hill, and had a public meeting place(an Agora)
Greeks were __________ and attributed ________ qualities to their gods and goddesses.
Polytheists … human
Who was the most powerful Greek god?
Zeus
What type of government found in the Greek citystates was rule by a king (usually inherited)?
Monarchy
What form of government in the Greek citystate had power is in the hands a wealthy elite, upper class, group?
Aristocracy
What were the characteristics of the direct democracy found in Athens?
Citizens vote on the issues themselves and participate in the day to day affairs of the government
Who was the leader of the Persian army in the GrecoPersian war and took on the “300” Spartans at
Thermopylae?
Xerxes
What were the results of the Greek victory over Persia in the GrecoPersian war?
Greeks became more united and convinced of their own uniqueness
Persia would never recover and be a major world power again
Athenians formed the Delian league
What was the cause of the Peloponnesian War?
Spartans resented Athenian domination
How did Athens differ from Sparta?
Athens placed emphasis on the individual and gave more freedoms. Sparta was a more militaristic state
What were the results of the Peloponnesian war?
Athenian domination of the Greek world was ended
Sparta was turned on and attacked by Thebes
King Phillip of Macedonia saw an opportunity to conquer and unite all of Greece
What Macedonian king is responsible for the blending of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultural?
Alexander the Great
What did Alexander the Great do to help spread Greek culture?
Conquered the Persian Empire
Encouraged his soldiers to take local wives
Built many Greek cities in the conquered areas
Alexander the Great extended his empire as far east as
India
What happened to Alexander’s Greek Empire after he died?
It would be ruled by his heirs for 1000 years
His generals divided up his empire
It was conquered by the Persians
In Roman Mythology, who is credited with the founding of the city of Rome?
Romulus and Remus
In early Roman society, who were Patricians?
were the wealthy landholding upper classes
In Roman society, who were Plebians?
were the farmers, merchants, and artisans that made up the majority of the population
The ancient Romans first developed their religious beliefs from who?
Greek religion
During the Roman Republic, what established that all free citizens had a right to protection under the law?
The Twelve Tables
Under the Roman Republic, which representative body represented the more democratic side of government by
having elected tribunes and making laws for the common man?
Assembly
Under the Roman Republic, who commanded the army and directed the government?
These people had limited
power because they could veto one another.
Consuls
Under the Roman Republic, which part was the more aristocratic branch, representing the upper class, of Rome’s
government?
Had 300 members with both administrative and legislative functions.
Senate
In the Punic Wars, Rome gained control of lands around the Mediterranean Sea by defeating who?
The Carthaginians
Who led a force of more than 50,000 soldiers and 60 elephants across the Alps to invade Rome?
Hannibal
What does triumvirate mean?
Rule of three
Who was part of the 1st Triumvirate?
Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar
Who was famously assassinated March 15, 44 BC, on the Ides of March, by a group of conspirators? Why?
Julius Caesar because they feared that he would do away with the senate and make himself king
How did the 2 and triumvirate end?
Lepidus was forced into exile and Octavian defeated Mark Antony at the battled of Actium
Who was the first emperor of Rome and marks the beginning of the Pax Romana?
Octavian Augustus Caesar
What was the Pax Romana?
200year period of peace and prosperity
How did the senate change during the Roman Empire as compared to the republic?
It held much less power than under the republic
The Romans used their engineering skills to build Aqueducts. What did they do?
Aqueducts that carried water into cities
Why was Christianity appealing for Romans?
It ofered a promise of eternal lift
It ofered a personal relationship with God
It embraced all people
What factors enabled the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman world?
The Pax Romana (safe travel on well built roads)
Common languages allowed the message to be easily understood
The apostles peter and Paul
The collapse of what marked the beginning of the Middle Ages?
The last Roman Emperor, in the west, being overthrown by barbarians
Who was the first Frankish King to convert to Christianity?
Clovis
Who was considered the “Savior of Christianity” after defeating Muslims at the battle of Tours?
Charles “the Hammer” Martel
Who is considered the “Father of Europe” by blending together Germanic customs, GrecoRoman Tradition, and
Christianity?
Charlemagne
Why happened on Christmas day 800AD? Why did the Pope do this?
Pope Leo III proclaimed Charlemagne to be emperor of the Romans because he had ended the Pope’s exile by crushing a rebellion in Rome
What did the Treaty of Verdun in 843 do to Charlemagne’s Frankish Empire?
Charlemagne’s heirs split his empire into 3 regions
What is Feudalism and what led to its development in Europe during the Middle Ages?
A system of mutual obligations to help kings rule their kingdom because they lacked strong central governments and the kings could not protect their people
What role did the knight play in feudalism?
Provide military service and protection
What role did serfs play in feudalism? What were the lives like?
They worked the land for shelter and protection
They were bound to the land but were not slaves
Most didn’t live past the age of 35 and lived rough lives
What role did the manor play in feudalism?
It was a selfsuf icient unit that provided everything a feudal society needed
How did agriculture improve during this time?
New harnesses and plows were invented
What effects did improved agriculture have on Medieval society?
Trade was revived which led to the growth of towns and a middle class
Who was crowned as the first Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire?
Otto I
What does it mean to be excommunicated?
To be banned from the Church
Who was the first Norman king of England?
William the Conquer
Which English King was forced to sign the Magna Carta?
King John
Magna Carta established Due Process and Habeas Corpus, which meant what?
Requirement that the government act fairly and in accordance with rules
The principle that a person cannot be imprisoned without being charged with a crime
. The Magna Carta also set up a representative body that became _______and limited the power of the ______?
Parliament, King
Which French King improved royal government and led 2 crusades?
Louis IX
What was the Estates General in France?
In France, a body of representatives from all three classes of society
Who was the only woman to be both King of England and France?
Eleanor of Aquitaine
What is Papal Supremacy?
Medieval Pope’s claim to authority over all rulers
Which Pope called for the Crusades? Why? What other motives did he have?
Pope Urban II rallied Christians to help Byzantine Emperor Alexis I because it provided an opportunity to retake the Holy Land from the Muslim, it could show that the Catholic Church was more powerful than the new Eastern Orthodox Church, the Pope wanted to increase his power and heal the schism, and he wanted to convert Muslims to Christianity
What was decided between Christians and Muslims at the end of the 3rd crusades?
Unarmed Christians could visit Jerusalem, which would remain under Muslim control
What were the long term results of the crusades?
A legacy of hatred between Christians and Muslims
What was the Reconquista?
The Christian takeover of Muslim lands in the Iberian Peninsula
After the Reconquista was complete in 1492, what did Queen Isabella do?
Ended tolerance of nonChristian religions with the help of the inquisition
What caused the dispute between King Henry II of England and the Archbishop Thomas Becket?
Henry claimed the right to try clergy in royal courts
Which Emperor caused more problems with the church with his practicing of Lay Investitures?
Emperor Henry IV
What is Lay Investitures?
The right of kings to appoint and install bishops
In the High Middle Ages, the balance of power began to shift away from the church and to who?
the monarchs
How did Royal authority rise during the middle ages?
Standing royal armies were established
Monarchs set up systems of royal justice
Kings and Emperors strengthened ties with the middle class
How did Greek text begin to reach Europe again?
Through Muslim Scholars after the crusades
Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge were among the first medieval cities to establish what?
Universities
What was the cause of the Hundred Years war between the French and English?
English Kings’ claims to French lands
Who lead the French to victories in the Hundred Years War before being captured by the English and being
burned at the state for being accused of being a witch?
Joan of Arc
What were the effects of the Hundred Years War?
The downfall of knights and castle walls(due to cannon fire) saw a decline of feudalism and the increase of powerful monarchs. Also, English rulers turned to new trading ventures overseas
How did the German states that made up the Holy Roman Empire differ from the kingdoms of England and
France?
It remained fragmented, a patchwork of feudal states
How did people react to the spread of the Black Death? Who did Christians blame?
They turned away from the church and accepted magic or which craft for cures
Christians would blame Jews for the Black Death
What were some economic results of the Black Death?
An increase in the cost of labor, inflation
Who founded Constantinople and what made it such a rich and prosperous city?
Constantine, it commanded key trade routes linking Europe and Asia
What were some of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian’s accomplishment?
He was determined to revive ancient Rome and extended the Byzantine borders, established the Justinian
Code, rebuilt Constantinople and the Hagia Sophia
What does Schism mean?
Split, split in the Church
What issue finally led to a bitter battle between eastern and western Christians?
A Byzantine emperor banned religious icons
Who is the highest church official in Byzantine Church?
Patriarch
After the Great Schism, what was the Christian Church in the east known as?
Eastern Orthodox Church
How did the Byzantine Emperor in the east differ from rulers in the west, in relationship to the church?
Byzantine Emperors claimed authority over the church
What did the Byzantine Empire protect Western Europe from?
From outside invasion from threats like the Muslims
What helped cause the decline of the Byzantine Empire?
The 4th crusades, where Christian knights attacked Constantinople and their trade routes fell in the hands of the venetians
What was the open, treeless grassland of southern Russia where Russia’s first civilization began?
Steppe
The development of Kiev and its culture was the result of the blended cultures of what two peoples?
Slavs and Vikings
Russia’s rivers linked early Russians to who (south of them)?
The Byzantine Empire and its capital Constantinople
What Russian city was at the center of a vital trade network, was early capital?
Kiev
What did Russian rulers Vladimir I and his son Yaroslav do to usher in a Golden Age?
Vladimir was a Russian King who converted to Orthodox Christianity and converted most of the kingdom to Orthodox Christianity. Yaroslav continued to expand the empire, adopted Justinian’s
Code, and create alliances with other European monarchs
Who was Genghis Khaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaan?
Mongol leader that created the largest Empire in the world
Who increased their power during Mongol control?
Moscow Princes (ex. Ivan the Great)
How did the Mongol rule over Russia affect Russia’s relations with Western Europe?
They cut Russia of from contacts with Western Europe when the west was experience growth in
science and the arts
Who finally conquered the Byzantines at Constantinople and how?
Ottoman Empire, their gunpowder and cannons brought down the walls of Constantinople
What was the affect of the fall of the Byzantine Empire on Russia, under Ivan III?
Adopted the title of czar (tsar), Russian for Caesar, and considered Russia as the 3rd
Rome, continuing the tradition of the Byzantines
What tradition did Ivan IV “the Terrible” introduce that future rulers would practice and that would shape Russian history into the 20th century?
Was a czar (tsar) who left a tradition of absolute rule