World History Midterm

World History Midterm

Cultural diffusion
The spread of ideas or products from one culture to another.
Acropolis
A hilltop fortress above a Greek city on which temples were built. High city.
Monarchy
Government ruled by a king or queen, rule is hereditary
Aristocracy
A government ruled by a small group of privileged upper class (ie. wealthy landowners)
Oligarchy
A form of government in which the ruling power is in the hands of a few people (ie. military or wealthy)
Direct Democracy
Decisions are made by the people themselves rather than by elected representatives
Greek Golden Age
Period of time following the Perisan Wars when Greek Culture/ Civilization was strong. Ruled by Pericles. Athens is rebuilt and Democracy is developed and practiced.
Polytheistic
Worshipping or believing in more than one god
Monotheistic
Believing that there is only one god
Hellenistic Culture
A result of the conquests of Alexander the Great. A blend of Greek culture with Eastern cultures: Egyptian, Persian and Indian
Philosopher
Seeker of wisdom or enlightenment. Often challenge traditionally held views of society.
Republic
Form of government with elected leaders who were to work for the interest of the people.
Empire
A large territory in which several groups of people are ruled by a single ruler or government which continually expands its borders through the conquering of other lands.
Twelve Tables
Laws that confirm the right of all free citizens to protection of the law; became the basis for Roman laws
Tyranny
Government in which an individual seized power by force.
Julius Caesar
Member of the 1st Triumvirate. Senate feared his power and popularity among the poor. His death led to the fall of the Roman Republic.
Augustus Caesar
Member of the 2nd Triumvirate. Declared himself the first Emperor of Rome. He initiated major reforms in Rome and began the Pax Romana.
Pax Romana
Time of peace and prosperity in Rome.
Christianity
Monotheistic religion. Founded by Jesus. Believe that God has sent Jesus as a Messiah.
Constantine
Moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium. Allowed Christians to worship freely in Rome.
Classical Culture
referring to the art of Greece and Rome, emphasized harmony, order, and proportion
Justinian Code
Roman law collected and organized by the Byzantine Emperor, lasted for over 900 years
Iconoclast Controversy
Debate between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church concerning the use of icons in the Church
Nomads
groups that wander in search of their food and water
Matrilineal
system by which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
Push/pull factors
reasons that cause people to leave their homeland and migrate to another location
Muhammad
the founder of Islam, considered the final messenger of Allah
Islam
a monotheistic religion that developed in Arabia in 7th century C.E. Founded by Muhammad. Submission to the will of god.
Muslim
one who practices Islam
Five Pillars
the main beliefs of Islam (prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving, & declaration of faith)
Qur’an
The holy book of the Islamic faith which holds the teachings of the prophet Muhammad.
shari’a
Islamic law which regulates all aspects of Muslim life. Is based on the Qur’an and sayings of Prophet Muhammad.
Sunni
An Islamic sect which holds the belief that any follower of the teachings of Muhammad can be a successor of the prophet.
Shi’a
An Islamic sect which holds the belief that the caliph or successor of Muhammad should be chosen from the family of the prophet.
Mesoamerica
The geographical and cultural area which extends throughout Central Mexico.
Vedas
The body of religious Hindu texts and hymns that originated from Ancient India.
Caste System
A social structure of India in which classes are determined by heredity and justified by religious beliefs.
Hinduism
Predominant religion of India which is based on the belief of reincarnation as the path to achieving peace and understanding.
Reincarnation
The rebirth of a soul into a new body or form.
Karma
The Buddhist and Hindu belief that the totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a person in life will determine his or her fate after death.
Buddhism
Asian philosophy. Founded by Siddharta Gautama. Based on the Four Noble Truths.
Four Noble Truths
Suffering is universal. Suffering is caused by desire. To overcome suffering you must overcome desire. Follow the eightfold path.
Siddhartha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism
Confucianism
Chinese philosophy. Founded by Confucius. Based on the Five Relationships.
Civil Service
The practice of awarding the most qualified candidate jobs in government.
Silk Road
Trade route that connected China and Europe
Legalism
Chinese philosophy. Based on relationship with authority. Believed society needed strict government to impose order
Daoism
Chinese philosophy. Based on relationship with self. Goal was to achieve ‘Dao’ or being one with nature
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese belief that an emperor’s right to rule was divine but also dependent on the conduct of the ruler
Japanese Feudalism
Period of Japanese history based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Shoguns held power. Samurai’s were warriors of great honor.