world history semester 1 exam review
What is the Neolithic Revolution?
the Neolithic Revolution is the time when people started settling down and farming and domesticating animals.
When did the Neolithic Revolution occur?
The Neolithic Revolution occurred around 10000 B.C.
Who were in the social classes of early societies?
Farmers, craftsmen, priests, and warriors made up the social classes of these early societies.
Why do you think humans switched from hunter-gatherer societies to farming communities? Hint: To answer this question, use your skills at inference and drawing conclusions.
I think humans went from hunter-gatherer societies to farming communities because it was a much more stable life. You knew where your next meal was coming from. Also it was a lot easier than having to hunt and gather the simply presented itself to them with very little effort on their part.
Where did the early farming groups make permanent settlements?
The early farming groups made their permanent settlements in fertile valleys next to rivers such as the Nile river, Tigris-Euphrates river, yellow river, and Indus river
Which of the following is something an ancient Egyptian nobleman and farmer would have had in common?
Both ate a breakfast of bread and fruit.
According to the geography maps in the British Museum, the archaeological sites of Giza, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, all had what in common?
All were found in “black land”
Which of the following is NOT true of Egyptian religious beliefs about creation?
The world was created from fire.
In mummification, for what did the ancient Egyptians use canopic jars?
To hold internal organs.
The ancient Egyptian pharaohs held both a political and religious title. What was the political title?
Lord of the Two Lands
In the Great Pyramid complex, what was the purpose of the three smaller pyramids?
They were built for Khufu’s wives.
Egyptian temples were entered through a large gate, or pylon, that had statues and obelisks in front. What is an obelisk?
A tall, thin, four-sided monument with a pyramid shape on top
How long did the civilization of ancient Egypt last?
In the ancient Egyptian text, “The Teaching of Duaf’s Son Khety,” why does the father speak badly of other professions?
He wants his son to be a scribe.
What were the tools of scribes?
Reed brushes and papyrus
Members of this group are related to the some of the earliest inhabitants who came to the Indus Valley around 2000 BCE.
In India, a “caste” refers to:
a closed social group into which people are divided
Of the following, which is the highest caste?
Today, caste barriers are ________ than they have been in the past, especially in cities.
The Hindu belief that human and animal spirits comeback to live many times in different forms is called?
What two world religions developed in the Indian subcontinent?
Hinduism and Buddhism
Harappan culture shows evidence of all of the following, EXCEPT
Upon which river were the Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations founded?
Who was Siddhartha Gautama?
All of the following are associated with Hinduism EXCEPT
All of the following are considered the most influential dynasties of China EXCEPT
The earliest writing in China was discovered written on
How did the Ancient Chinese refer to their country?
The Middle Kingdom
Along what river did Ancient China develop?
During what dynasty did bronze working become common?
Feudalism, the practice of kings sharing power with nobles in exchange for military or monetary payment, became popular during the _______ dynasty and eventually led to its downfall.
What did a Chinese Emperor “lose” right before he was overthrown?
Mandate of Heaven
Which of the following choices has the correct chronology (oldest to youngest) of Chinese Dynasties?
Shang, Qin, Han, Tang
All of the following are philosophies of Ancient China EXCEPT
Which of the following are not shared by Confucianism and Buddhism?
The practice of animal sacrifice
Before athletes could participate in the Olympics, they had to go to the Bouleuterion and swear an oath that they had trained for 10 months. Who did they swear the oath to?
Zeus, God of thunder, King of Olympus
In what Olympic event were women allowed to participate?
The horse and chariot races as owners only
What was the pentathlon?
Discus, javelin, long jump, running, and wrestling
The Olympics were a sporting event as well as a way for Greeks to keep fit for war. What was another purpose of the games?
A religious festival dedicated to the gods
What would winners of the Olympic Games receive as a prize?
What was the mekhane (crane) used for in Greek plays?
For actors playing the gods
Greek plays began as religious festivals honoring which god?
Dionysus, God of wine and fertility
How many actors were there in the first Greek plays?
Who won the prizes after all the plays had been performed?
What body of water is located furthest from the site of the Olympic Games?
Which group represented the nobles of Rome?
Which part of the American government today gets its name from Ancient Rome?
According to Roman tradition, who founded Rome?
Romulus and Remus
Which Carthaginian General’s army crossed the Alps to attack the Romans during the Punic Wars?
What occurred during the period 450 BCE to 287 BCE?
The Plebians gained more rights.
What does ‘Pax Romana’ stand for?
Which of the following represents the correct order (high to low) of the Roman social order?
Senators, Equestrians, Plebian, Slaves
What did ALL urban civilizations in the Americas have in common?
Even though they lived in cities, the majority of people still worked as farmers.
Which Mayan custom best illustrates the saying that “beauty is in the eye of the beholder?”
Mayan infants would have objects dangled in front of their eyes in order to permanently cross their eyes.
In what way was the Incan social structure similar to the Hindus of India, a culture we studied previously?
The Inca had an inflexible social structure, similar to the Indian caste system.
How would you distinguish the Inca record keeping system from that of the Mayans?
Incans had no writing, but kept records with a series of knotted ropes, whereas the Mayans developed writing.
Where was the center of Aztec culture?
What was the worst disaster to befall the Aztecs during the reign of Mocteuzma II?
The Spanish invaded
What can you infer about the role religion played in the subjugation of surrounding people by the Aztecs?
he Aztecs believed the gods needed blood, so wars of conquest provided sacrificial victims.
Which of the following provides the best reason for the wealth of knowledge available about the Aztecs prior to 1500?
The Aztecs were the most literate people in the Americas.
After the initial wave of settlers from the Korean peninsula, what was the second great influence in the development of Japanese culture?
Contact with China
Japan is slightly smaller than what state in the United States?
In what way did the geography of Japan affect the development of ancient Japanese government?
Mountainous terrain resulted in regional, rather than national governments
The bakufu government, first established during the period known as the Kamakura Bakufu, can best be described as what type of government?
Which statement best describes the political situation during the Kamakura Bakufu?
Struggle for rule of Japan by a series of powerful families
What can you infer about political rule in Japan during the Ashikaga Bakufu?
Most regions were actually ruled by daimyos.
Which of the following best reflects the path the spread of Amida Buddhism took?
India to China to Japan
Which of the following is the key to understanding Zen Buddhism?
This leader of the Mongol Empire was originally named Temujin but rose to power and changed his name. He organized the Mongols into a powerful fighting force.
Which leader of the Mongol Empire completed the conquest of China?
What was the original name of the book about Marco Polo’s travels in China that had a great influence on Europe?
Description of the World
Two major cities located on the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea became powerful trading centers in the Middle Ages and traded with the Mongol Empire. They were Genoa and ___________.
Where did Marco Polo serve as a government official, possibly even governor, for the Mongol Empire?
What happened to Marco Polo when he returned home from China?
He was put in prison after fighting against Genoa.
How did Kublai Khan treat people of other religions?
He was very tolerant of all religions.
What did Marco Polo call China?
What was one reason why the Mongol Empire did not last long?
They had no unity of culture.
When a boy reached the age of seven, he left home to begin training for knighthood. He was then called a __________.
According to this “code,” a knight was supposed to champion right against injustice and evil and never surrender or flinch in the face of the enemy. What do we call this code?
According to this system, a lord gave vassals land in exchange for military and other services.
This Latin word means ‘military retainer’ and was a warrior who received a fief.
Lord Henri Vasquer wishes to reward you, his loyal vassal. How would he most likely show his pleasure with you?
He would give you a fief.
True or false: A serf was a slave.
False, a serf was halfway between being a slave and a free person.
During the 4th century CE, the Roman Empire split into two parts, the East Roman Empire and the West Roman Empire. The West Roman Empire had its capital in Rome. The East Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, had its capital in _____________.
What title did Pope Leo III bestow upon Charlemagne on December 25, 800 in recognition of his power?
Which ceremony is being described below? A knight kneels before a lord, places his hands between the lord’s hands, and indicates that he is the lord’s man. The lord recognizes the knight as a vassal, raises him to his feet, and kisses him.
During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church:
became extremely powerful.
In which French city was the papacy located during part of the 14th century?
What arose in towns as an association of business people with the same interests?
Who conquered England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066?
William of Normandy
Which document forcibly signed by King John was the first to limit the monarch’s power in England?
What was the largest and wealthiest monarchy in Europe by the end of the 13th century?
The German kings were unable to create a strong, central monarchy because they were preoccupied with controlling which country?
What is the plague called that hit Europe in the 14th century and killed a huge amount of people?
Joan of Arc became an important leader during the Hundred Years War and eventually helped lead which country to victory?
What does the term ‘Renaissance’ mean?
Where did the Renaissance first develop?
One of the most influential innovations in painting was the ability to show ________ in a picture.
What Renaissance invention is often called the most important invention of modern times?
Which features enabled the Renaissance to develop in Italy?
Central European location Network on roads Wealth from trade
The differences between a medieval craftsman and a renaissance artist can be summarized as:
The most important significant changes dealt with materials.
In general, most women in Renaissance Europe were
treated as inferior to men.
Which of the following works of art would be a prime example of the changing focus in Renaissance art?
Raphael’s School of Athens
What religious organization was the reformers of the Protestant Reformation protesting against?
A freeing from the earthly punishments associated with sin that has been forgiven.
Selling of positions and offices within the church.
To challenge, question or deny an established church teaching.
He wrote the “Institutes of the Christian Religion.”
Person given the primary responsibility for starting the Protestant Reformation.
He was burned at the stake for heresy.
He was the first to translate the Bible into English.
What was the main practice of the church that Martin Luther disagreed with in his 95 Theses?
How did the discovery of the Americas change Europeans sense of history?
It led to the Enlightenment and the idea of progress.
Which Portuguese explorer was the first person to sail directly from Europe to India?
Vasco da Gama
Which of the following was the generally accepted European idea of a westward Atlantic journey to Asia in the time of Columbus?
The crew would die of starvation or dehydration over such a long trip.
What two European nations agreed to divide the New World of North and South America between them in 1494?
Spain and Portugal
What was the primary cause of death of Native American Indians under the Spanish?
What was “the black legend”?
English claim that the Spanish were brutal to justify their own conquest.
What was the primary Spanish interest in the New World?
Provide Spain with wealth
The Holy Roman Empire was a unified nation-state with a strong absolute monarchy.
The Holy Roman Empire can trace its origins back to Charlemagne.
The German Princes supported the Catholic Church.
The Thirty Years War involved few European powers.
he Thirty Years War resulted in independence for the German states.
The Thirty Years War ended with the Treaty of Westphalia.
Maximilian I was able to establish the Hapsburg Dynasty as a European power.
Which family dominated the position of Holy Roman Emperor for centuries?
Who eventually abolished the Holy Roman Empire for good?