World History- Spring Semester Final Exam Study Guide 2015

World History- Spring Semester Final Exam Study Guide 2015

Christopher Columbus
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the “New World,” even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the “New World.” The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journeys until the time of his death in 1503.
Mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
The middle passage
The journey of slaves from Africa, across the Atlantic, to the West Indies or colonial America, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route. Many slaves did not survive the trip.
Ferdinand Magellan
divine right of king’s/ James I
Oliver Cromwell
-English Revolutionary
Louis XIV/ complete authority
Cardinal Richelieu
John Locke
ottoman’s/religion
viziers
Ancient managers who used the managerial functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
Nicholas Copernicus
Isaac Newton/universal law of gravitation
Francis bacon
Jean-Jacques Rousseau/social contract
treaty of Paris, 1763
Galileo
Montesquieu/political thought
Adam smith/ Laissez-faire
Tennis Court Oath
Committee of public safety/powers
Napoleon/directory
coup d’etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
Napoleon Bonaparte
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Napoleon/ Civil Code
Industrial Revolution
Queen Victoria
Prince Klemens von Metternich/ principle of legitimacy
realpolitik
“realistic politics,” practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles
darwin/ organic revolution
crimean war
louis pastor
Francis-Dominique Toussaint-Louverture
Western Front/ Trench Warfare
Stalin’s Five Year Plan/ purpose
League of Nations/ weakness
The Battle of Midway Island
Women’s Liberation Movement
Camillo di Cavour
William I of Prussia
Karl Marx/ Socialist
Sigmund Freud
Duma
Triple Entente
Triple Alliance
David Livingstone
indirect rule/ africa
Mohandas Gandhi
“White Man’s burden”
Emilio Aguinaldo
The Treaty of Nanjing
Russo- Japanese War
League of Nations
Act of war/ 1914
Central Powers
Total War
Militarism
Schlieffen Plan
German’s/unrestricted
Submarine Warfare
V.I. Lenin
British Mandates
March 1917/ Petrograd
Treaty of Locarno
John Maynard Keynes
Totalitarian
Kristallnacht
“Night of Broken Glass” -the night of November 9, 1938, on which Nazi troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues throughout Germany
Fascism
Fransico Franco
Nuremberg Laws
Benito Mussolini
Lawrence of Arabia
Balfour Declaration
Good Neighbor Policy
Ethnic Cleansing
Pearl Harbor
Appeasement
Cold War
Yalta Conference
Capital
Containment
Domino theory
Civil rights movement
Command Economy
Mikhail Gorbachev
Leonid Brezhnev
Ronald Reagan
Ayatollah Khomeini
Jimmy Carter
Harry Truman
Richard Nixon
Pol Pot
Chaing Kai-shek
Douglas MacArthur
Margaret Thatcher
Great Britain’s Glorious Revolution of 1688
The 1848 Revolution’s of Europe (mainly in France, Germany, Netherlands and Austria)
The French Revolution (1789) and the Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815)
The Russian Revolution of February 1917 and the Bolshevik Revolution (1918-1922)
World War I (1914-1918)
World War II (1939-1945)
Cold War (1945-1991)
liberalism in the sense of the enlightenment
conservatism
A belief that limited government insures order competitive markets and personal opportunity.
nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country
industrialism
an economic system built on large industries rather than on agriculture or craftsmanship
imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
militiarism
is a build up of arms, investing more money into the military
system of alliances
A series of treaties requiring a country to give military assistance to another country if it were to be attacked by a third country. -Dangerous because it dragged many countries into war (Leading cause of WWI)
fascism
A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Marxism
…, the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Communism
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.