World History Unit 1 Study Guide

archeology
the study fo past societies through analysis of what people left behind
artifacts
objects made by humans
anthropology
study of human life and culture
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radiocarbon dating
method used to determine age of objects no more than 50,000 years old in which the amount of radioactive carbon is measured
thermoluminescence
method used to determine age of objects back to 200,000 years ago in which the light given off by electrons trapped in the soil is measured
homo sapiens
“wise humans” that showed rapid brain growh and mastered fire- evolved into Neanderthals and homo sapiens sapiens
“out-of-Africa” theory
Replacement theory that proposes homo sapien sapiens sperad out of Africa and replaced populations of earlier hominids in Europe and Asia about 100,000 years ago
Paleolithic Age
early period of human history in which humans used stone tools
hunter-gatherers, men and women hunted, stone tools
characteristics of the Paleolithic Age
nomads
people who move from place to place to survive
fire
first used by homo erectus to adjust to climate change
Neolithic Revolution
shift form hunting and gathering to systematic agriculture that occured between 8,000 and 4.000 BC – aka the new stone age
Catalhuyuk
a large Neolithic farming village
tools, weapons
uses of metals
cities, govenment, religion, social structure, writing, art—- CGRSWA
characteristics of civilization
growing #s of people, need to maintain food supply, need for defense
governments evolved
explain forces of nature and role in the world
religion evolved
transfer of new technology, like tools, form one region to another
benefits of trade
keep records, creative expression
uses of writing
fertile cresent
an arc of land from the Mediteranean sea to the persian Gulf
Mesopotamia
valley between the Tigris and euphrates Rivers at the eastern end of the Fertile Cresent
uruk
an independent city in southern mesopotamia that formed a city-state
Sumerian city-states
basic units of sumerian civilization
ziggurat
a massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god
theocracy
government by divine authority
cuniform
wedge-shaped system of writing developed by the sumerians using a reed stylus to create impressions on a clay tablet
keeping records- scribes, pass on knowledge
purpose for writing
epic of Gilgamesh
epic poem that records the exploits of a legendary king
sumerians to transport people and goods
invention of the wheel
Sargon
leader of the akkadians, people north of the sumerian cities that spoke a semetic language
code of hammurabi
system of laws based on strict justice
flooding=miracle of life, fertile soil
Nile River importance
polythiestic associated with heavenly bodies and natural forces
Egyptians religion
menes
king that united upper and lower egypt into a single kingdom+ created the 1st dynasty
bureaucracy
administrative organization with officials and regular procedures
mummification
process of slowly drying a dead body to keep it form rotting
Old Kingdom
2700BC-2200BC: age of prosperity and splendor in Egypt
Middle Kingdom
2022BC-1650BC: golden age of stability after 150 year period of disorder in Egypt
New Kingdom
1550BC-1070BC: period of runification after the HYksos were overthrown during which Egypt became the most powerful state in Southwest Asia
Hatsheput
pone of the 1st women to become pharaoh
Tutenkhamen
boy-pharaoh who restored the old gods and reversed the previous ruler’s changes
Ramses II
pharaoh of 1279BC-1213BC: regained control of palestine
hieratic script
hightly simplified version of hieroglyphics used in ancien egypt for business transactions, record keeping, and daily life
365-day calendar, embalming, human body, medical knowledge
Egypt’s inventions
Hittites
people who created an empire in western asia+ threatened the power of Egyptians
Phonecian alphabet
22 characters
“ten lost tribes”
after the Assyrians overan the kingdom of Israel, the scattered Israelites that merged with neighboring peoples and lost thier identities
Judeism
monothiestic religion that was unique form among the religions of westen asia and egypt
Assyrians
semetic-speaking people who exploited the use of iron weapons to establish an empire by 700BC
warfare of the Assyrians
powerful army, iron weapons, many military techniques, used terror
Nebuchandnezzar
chaldean king that made babylonia the leading state in western asia
Cyrus
member of the family that unified the persians who created a powerful persian state
Darius
added a new persian province in western India
Royal Road
well-maintained road that stretched form Lydia to Susa, the empire’s capital
Zoroastrianism
the persian’s monothiestic religion that focused on the god Ahuramazda
Ahuramazda
the supreme god of Zoroastrianism
Four Noble Truths
provided a base for Siddhartha’s teacheings to followers in the Deer Park: meant to leat to nirvana
Eight Fold Path
(Middle Path) commandments to lead to nirvana
Gupta Empire
320ad-5th century classical civilization that traded and became the gretest state since Mauryana in China
Shang
dynasty form 1750bc-1045bc that was ruled by an aristocracy whose major concern was war
Zhou
longest lasting dynasty form 1045bc-256bc that had a bureaucracy: began the concept of Mandate of Heaven
Qin
dynasty that used force to unite the chinese world
civil service system
government officials were chosen based on merit rather than birth- China established school to train anyone (peasants too) to take a civil service examination
Han
dynasty that emerged in 202bc that refined political structures, divided China into provinces, and cont. civil service system
aryans
group of people that moved south across the hindu kush into the plains of northern india
Sanskrit
Aryan’s written indo-european language
caste system
system based on the belief that people are born into social groups defined by occupation and heritage
Hinduism
polytheistic religion that believes in brahman and follows dharma
Buddhism
monotheistic religion that belives inthe great world soul and follows the teachings of Buddha/siddartha
Reincarnation
belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
karma
force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life
dharma
divine law that rules karma
Siddartha Guatama
founder of buddhism
nirvana
ultimate reality
Asoka
the grandson of Candragupta Maurya who is generally considered to be the greatest Indian ruler
Silk road
route along which the Roman Empire and China traded valuable materials like silk
Vedas
earliest known literature which contain religious chants and stories
Arybhata
most famous mathematician of the Gupta era that was one of the 1st known to have used Algebra
Mandate of Heaven
Claim by chinese kings of the Zhou dynasty that they had direct authority form heaven to rule and keep order in the universe
dynastic cycle
pattern of dynasties gaining power, ruling successfully for several years, and then declining. a new cycle then began when a new dynasty took control
ideographs
characters that combine two or more pictographs to represent an idea
Confucianism
the system of political and ethical ideas formulated by the Chinese philospher Confucious towards the end of the Zhou dynasty that was intended to help restore order to a confused society
Daoism
system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi: teaches that the way to get to heaven is through inaction and that the best way to act in harmony is to not interfere with the natural order
Legalism
popular philosophy that proposed human beings are evil by nature and can only be brought to the correct path through harsh laws
Qin Shihuangdi
ruler of the Qin dynasty who came to the throne at age 13, defeated his enemies, and founded the dynasty
censorate
part of the Chinese bureaucracy that made sure the government officials were doing their jobs
hammurabi
rulesr that came to power in Babylon and gained control of sumer and Addad, thus creating a new Mesopotamian kingdom

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