World History Unit 2 Test

Agora
a central spot in ancient Greek city-states, center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city
Alexander
learned from Aristotle, crushed Theban army, sold people into slaves, burned city, became pharaoh in Egypt, destroyed Persian army
Octavian
Augustus; first emperor of Rome
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Aristotle
studied at the Academy, interested in reason, clear and ordered thinking, rational, logic, process of making inferences
Attila the Hun
“The Scourge of God”, led attack on Gaul
Augustus
title given to Octavian, means “The Revered One”
Bread and Circuses
a poet wrote that free food and entertainment will satisfy the common people and keep them from causing trouble
Constantine
converted to Christianity when he had a vision of the words “conquer” across the sky before a war, made Christianity legal in the empire, built new capital
tribune
an official in ancient Rome chosen by the plebeians to protect their interests
Edict of Milan
the agreement in 313 AD that made Christianity legal in the Roman Empire
Constantinople
made capital of Roman Empire, eastern half was richer
Council of 500
wrote laws that would be voted on by the Assembly
Delian League
founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, created for defense
Democracy
consisted of three parts, “government by the people”, developed in Athens
Disciples
Jesus’ followers
First Citizen
Princeps, title for an emperor
Forum
Heart of Rome, public square, public addresses given here, Senate met here
Gospels
first four books of New Testament
Greek Murals
scenes from Iliad and Odyssey
Hannibal Helots
a member of the class of unfree men above slaves owned by the state
Homer
wrote greek epics; the Iliad and the Odyssey
Archon
the Chief of State, head of Assembly and Council of 500, served for one year but could be elected many times
Hoplites
a heavily armed foot soldier of ancient Greece
Illiad
story of Achilles and Hector
Odyssey
story of Odysseus trying to come home to Ithaca
Julius Caesar
became dictator in 44 BC, brought many changes, popular reforms, Senate feared him and killed him on the Ides of March
Latin
language of Rome
Law of 12 Tables
laws displayed in Roman Form in central square, large bronze tablets, protected plebeians against unjust treatment by patricians
Messiah
spiritual leader that would restore the world and bring peace, Christians believed Jesus was the messiah
Mycenaeans
first Greeks, first people to speak Greek language, influenced by the earlier Minoan civilization, located on the island of Crete, thrived from 1650-1200 BC
Parthenon
monument dedicated to goddess Athena
Oedipus Rex
an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles about a king named Oedipus killing his own father and marrying his mother
Oligarchy
a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution
Parthenon
monument dedicated to goddess Athena
Paterfamilias
family fathers, oldest living male headed the family
Paul of Tarsus
established Christian churches, believed god had sent him a message that he had to convert non Jews, wrote epistles
Epistles
letters to churches, became part of the New Testament
Phalanx
tight rectangular fighting formation
Phillip II
king of Naples and Sicily, Philip II distributed bonuses to the troops and money to the citizens of Rome to celebrate his accession to the throne as sole ruler
Plato
student of Socrates, left behind a number of writings, interested in truth and government, famous for the Republic, believed government should be run by philosophers, created the Academy
Polis
a city state in ancient Greece
Punic Wars
raged for nearly 80 years, 3 wars, Romans defeated and destroyed Carthage
Romance Language
developed from Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian
Socratic Method
asked questions like “what is truth” and would ask questions based on peoples’ answers
Sparta
emphasis on warfare, boys taught by moms until 7, went to “boot camp”, served for 10 years

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