World history unit 2

World history unit 2

What was the enlightenment?
A philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in europe in the 18th century.
How did the enlightenment begin?
It started from some key ideas put forth by two English political thinkers of the 1600s, Thomas Hobbes and Johne Locke.
Reason
Enlightened thinkers believed truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking.
Nature
The philosophes believed that what was natural was also food and reasonable.
Progress
The philosophes stressed that society and humankind could improve.
Happiness
The philosophes rejected the medieval notion that people should find joy in the hereafter and urged that humankind could improve.
Liberty
The philosophes called for the liberties that the English people had won their glorious revolution and their Bill of Rights.
Voltaire
He made frequent targets of the clergy, the aristocracy,and the government. Voltaire never stop fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom,freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.
Montesquieu
Devoted himself to the study of political liberty. He believed that Britain was the best governed and most politically balanced country of his own day. He wrote his famous book “On the Spirit of Laws”.
Rousseau
Passionately committed to individual freedom. He won recognition as a writer of essays. Rousseau argued that civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness.
Beccaria
He believed the laws existed to preserve social order, not to average crimes. Beccaria based his ideas about justice on the principle that government should seek the greatest good for the greatest number number of people.
Wollstonecraft
She disagreed with Rousseau that woman’s education should be secondary. She said that women like men, need education to become virtuous and useful.
What kind of state should be referred to as”republic” according to Rousseau? why?
Any state governed by laws. The government doesn’t really care about public’s interest.
Why should citizens be the authors of society’s laws according to Rousseau?
The citizens are the ones being subject to the laws.
Why does Montesquieu believe that disobeying laws leads to a loss of liberty?
Everyone would have the same power.
Belief in Progress
The growth of scientific knowledge seemed to quicken in the 1700s. It gave people the confidence that human reason could solve social problems. Philosophes and reformers urged an end to the practice of slavery and argued for greater social equality as well as a more democratic style of government.
A More Secular Outlook
A more non-religious outlook. People started to believe in Science more than religion. Voltaire and other critics attacked some of the beliefs and practices of organized Christianity.
Importance of the Individual
The rise of individualism. People began to turn away from the church and loyalty for guidance.
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson and July 1776. The document was firmly based on the ideas of John Locke and the enlightenment. It reflected the ideas in its eloquent argument for natural rights.
Thomas Jefferson
Political leader. American founding father and third president of the United States.
Checks and balances
Built-in system with each branch checking the actions of the other two.
Federal system
Constitution set up a federal system in which power is divided between national and state government.
Bill of rights
Turn amendment known as the Bill of Rights. Protects basic rights.
What does the term “taxation without representation” mean?
It meant there was no one to represent the colonist about taxes.
Describe how the Boston tea party led to the American Revolution
Since George III paid no attention to the first continental Congress,on 1775 British soldiers and American militiamen exchanged gunfire. The second Continental Congress voted to raise an army.
Discuss the reasons why the color one the American Revolution
The Americans motivation for filing was stronger than the British. The British generals made several mistakes. Time itself was on the American’s side.
What did the articles of Confederation established in 1781?
Establish the United States as a republic. A government in which citizens rule through elected representatives.
Under the articles of confederation what powers of Congress did it have? What powers did it not have?
A weak national government. Congress could declare war, enter into tread ties, and coin money. They had no power to collect taxes of regulate trades.
Why did colonial leaders meet to revise the articles of confederation?
They eventually recognized the need for a strong natural government.
What was the difference between the federalist view are the anti-federalist view of government?
Federalist thought that the new government would provide a better balance between national and state powers. The anti-Federalist feared that the Constitution gave the government too much power.
How did the Constitution and the Bill of Rights reflect enlightenment ideas?
They expressed an optimistic view that reason and reform could prevail and that progress was inevitable.
Old Regime
Social and political system of France
Estate
Large social classes from France
Louis XVI
A king of France who loved to spend. During the 1770s and 1780s.
Marie Antoinnette
Queen of France during the 1770s and 1780s who loved to spend.
Estates-General
An assembly of representatives from all three states
National assembly
Third estate delegates
Tennis court oath
When the third estate delegates pledged to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution.
Great fear
A wave of senseless fear because of rumors.
The First Estate
Made up of clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
Scorned enlightenment ideas.
The Second Estate
Made up of rich nobles.
Held highest offices in government.
Disagreed about enlightenment ideas.
The Third Estate
Included Bourgeois ,urban lower class, and peasant farmers.
Had no power to influence government.
Embraced and enlightenment ideas.
Resented the wealthy First and Second Estates.
Cause
Effect
National assembly stops declaration of rights of man and of the citizen
1. What are some rights this document guarantees French citizens?
Liberty property security and resistance to oppression.
National assembly reforms status of the church
2. What caused the peasants to appose many of these forms?
Catholics didn’t want the state to make a church a part of the state.
National assembly hands power to the legislative assembly
3. What political factions made up the Legislative assembly?
Power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations of war.
Legislative assembly declares war on Austria.
Parisians invade Tuileries and unimprisoned the royal family.
Parisian mobs massacre more than 1,000 prisoners.
4. What did European monarchs fear from France?
They feared that similar revolts might break out in their own countries.
Ex-King Louis XVI is executed.
Robespierre leads committee of public safety; Reign of Terror begins.
5. What effects did the September Massacres have on the government?
A war began.
Robespierre is executed; Reign of Terror ends.
6..What was the stated aim of Robespierre and his supporters?
Wanted to wipe out any trace of France’s past.
National Convention adopts new constitution.
7. What were some of the consequences of the Reign of Terror?
Many of the people who challenged Robespierre ended up with a death.
What governmental body had the power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations or war?
Legislative assembly.
What faction of nobles and others left France, hoping to undo the Revolution and restore the old Regime?
Émigrés
What faction of Parisian workers and small shopkeepers wanted the revolution to bring even greater changes?
Sans-culottes
Which members of a radical political organization were involved in the governmental changes in September 1792?
Jacobins.
What machine was used to behead criminals in France?
Guillotine
Which period of rule did Robespierre govern France virtually as a dictator
Reign of Terror