World History Unit 3 Test Review

World History Unit 3 Test Review

Mycenaean
An Indo-European people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.
Trojan War
A war fought between Greece and Troy; Trojan horse
Dorian
A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.
Homer
Ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Epic
A long narrative poem, written in heightened language, which recounts the deeds of a heroic character who embodies the values of a particular society
Myth
A traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.
Polis
A city-state in ancient Greece
Acropolis
A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
Monarchy
A government in which power is in the hands of a single person
Aristocracy
A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
Oligarchy
A government ruled by a few powerful people
Tyrant
A ruler or person who has complete power and uses it in cruel or unjust ways
Democracy
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Helot
In ancient Sparta, captive peoples who were forced to work for their conquerors
Phalanx
A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
Persian Wars
5th century B.C.E wars between the Persian empire and Greek city-states; Greek victories allowed Greek civilization to define identity.
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Classical Art
Art influenced by the styles and techniques of ancient Greece and Rome.
Tragedy
A serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic or noble character
Comedy
A literary work which ends happily because the hero or heroine is able to overcome obstacles and get what he or she wants.
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 BCE) The war between Athens and Sparta that in which Sparta won, but left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
Philosipher
person who searches for the truth and meaning of life
Socrates
(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.
Plato
427-347 BC; Socrates’ most famous student; described the ideal form of government in his famous book, The Republic
Aristotle
A Greek Philosopher, taught Alexander the Great, started a famous school, studied with Plato
Philip II
Alexander the Great’s father, ruled in Macedonia during 382-336, started paying his army, changes how the Phalanx works which makes creating an empire not so hard, starts to take over Greece, conquers Thebes and Athens in 338, assassinated in 336 and Alexander is crowned king at the age of 20.
Macedonia
An an ancient kingdom ruled by Alexander the Great that conquered most of Greece and the Persian Empire in the 300s B.C.
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Darius III
Alexander’s main enemy; emperor of Persian empire; eventually defeated by Alexander the Great
Hellenistic
A cultural blend, under Alexander’s policies, of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian. Koine was the popular spoken language used in these cities.
Alexandria
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
Euclid
(circa 300 BCE), Greek mathematician. Considered to be the father of modern geomertry.
Archimedes
(287-212 BCE) Greek mathematician and inventor. He wrote works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics. He is best known for the lever and pulley.
Colossus of Rhodes
A bronze statue, more than 100 feet high, and one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It is considered the largest known statue of the Hellenistic period.
Republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Patrician
In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class.
Plebeian
A common farmer, trader, or craftworker in ancient Rome
Tribune
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.
Consul
An elected official who led the Roman Republic
Senate
Elected officials
Dictator
A ruler who has complete power over a country
Legion
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome’s dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Hannibal
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Civil War
A war between people of the same country
Julius Caesar
100-44 BC. Roman general who ended Roman Republic. Conquered Gaul with his powerful army. Made himself Roman dictator in 46 BC. Assassinated by Brutus and others in 44 BC because he was too powerful.
Triumvirate
A group or association of three leaders
Augustus
(63 BCE – 14 CE) First emperor of Rome (27 BCE – 14 CE) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Grandnephew to Julius Caesar.
Pax Romana
“Roman Peace” long era of peace and safety in the Roman Empire
Jesus
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God and the Christ.
Apostle
Close follower of Jesus
Paul
A.D. 11-67 Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world
Diaspora
A Greek word meaning ‘dispersal,’ used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, were spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in by the Romans.
Constantine
(274 CE – 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Bishop
A church official who leads a large group of Christians in a particular region
Peter
A.D. 5-67 One of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catholics consider him to be the first pope, bishop of Rome
Pope
Bishop of Rome; head of the Catholic church in western Europe.
Inflation
An increase in the overall amount of something
Mercenary
A soldier who is paid to fight in a foreign army.
Diocletian
(245-313) Emperor of Rome who was responsible for dividing Rome into different provinces and districts. Eventually, the eastern portions of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.
Constantinople
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul
Attila
(c. AD 406-453) Early Christian church father and philosopher; his writings helped shape Christian doctrine for centuries.
Greco-Roman culture
an ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures.
Pompeii
Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79
Virgil
– author of the Aeneid during reign of Augustus about 800 years after the city was established
Tacitus
A Roman historian who presented the facts accurately. He wrote about the good and the bad of imperial Rome in his Annals and Histories.
Aqueduct
A structure that carries water over long distances