WR Ch 12-13
What was the first public act of Jesus?
baptizing John the baptism in the jordan river
What is the core message of Jesus Christ in the Gospels?
death and ressurection redeem the human race
What is the role of missionary work in Christianity? Name one group known for their missionary work?
mormans and latter day saints; spreading christianity; its been a fundamental ascept since the beginning
Who is Joseph Smith? What is his role in19th century America?
founder and leader of mormanism
Who posted the 95 Thesis? Where was it posted? When was it posted?
martin luther; door of the catholic church; wininburge germany; october 31, 1517
Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. What are the religious ideals that Martin Luther Advocates?
addvocates universal priesthood and access to the bible
What is the importance of the Printing Press during the Protestant Reformation?
luthers opinion and teaching spread widely and easily
Why did King Henry VIII break away from the Catholic Church? What was the result of his actions?
he wanted to remarry but couldnt; wanted a male heir; political reason; fighting of church of england and catholic church
Name the three major religious conclusions stated by the Council of Trent (1545-1663 C.E.)?
scripture and tradition were equally important; there were 7 sacraments; selling indulgences are done away with
What happened to cause the Catholic Counter-Reformation?
roman Catholics recognized corruption within the church after protestant reformation and pushed for reform
Who is Pope Pius IX? What did he say concerning the Immaculate Conception of Mary (1854 C.E.)?
mary was born without original sin
What is the role of Pope John XXIII within the Catholic Church?
vatacan 2- updated and modernized the church
Name the three major religious conclusions stated by the Vatican II (1962-65):
noncatholics are recognized as christians; declares not all jews are responsible for jesus death; opens the door for reconciliation of all three branches of christianity
Mary mother of Christ. What is her role in Christianity?
virgin mary gave birth to the savior; more emphasis on mary in catholicism over protestantism
What is Liberation Theology? Where and when did Liberation Theology start?
latin america 1960s 70s- interpreted message of jesus in terms of the needs of the poor
Who was Martin Luther King Jr.? What did he learn from the teachings of Gandhi?
baptists preacher- studied gandhi and developed philosophy of nonviolent movement that used during civil rights activism
Approximately how many Christians are there in the world?
over 2 billion
The Gospels make only the slightest reference to Jesus’
Albert Schweitzer, author of The Quest for the Historical Jesus, argued that Jesus’ teachings placed heavy emphasis on
Our knowledge of the earliest period of the Church’s history comes from the biblical book known as
acts of the apostles
___ was a thirteenth century theologian who, like the Jewish theologian Maimonides before him, attempted to synthesize the philosophy of Aristotle with the Bible
A central concern of all the Christian reformers both before and during the ___ was making the Bible accessible to the average Christian in a language he/she could understand
Jesus and his earliest followers were __ who largely accepted the main teachings of .
The Roman Emperor who converted to Christianity in 337 was _____.
constantine the great
Martin Luther’s life as an excessively scrupulous monk was changed forever when he read _____ teaching that humans are saved by _____ not by good works.
paul’s ; faith
Which type of Christianity broke with Roman Catholic Church over issues of Trinitarian theology, culture, and church leadership, this Christian denomination went on to found sister churches in Russia and Eastern Europe.
Christian group that includes denomination like the Mennonites and the Amish are know as?
This denomination was the second largest Christian group in the United States during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: .
This denomination bases its theology on the writings of John Calvin
What are the seven sacraments within Catholicism?
baptism, Eucharistc(communion) , reconciliation (pennance), confirmation, marriage, holy orders, anointing of the sick (Last rites)
Explain the concept of original sin.
all people are born with sin because of the sin of adam and eve
What was Augustine’s influence over the development of Christianity?
formulates the doctrines of original sin and predestination
What was Thomas Aquinas’ influence over the development of Christianity?
tried to combine aristotle and christianity (unity of faith and reason)
What is the Qur’an?
last words to humanity- holy book- given to muhhamid by god
What is a surah?
way the guran is split- divided by lenth- source of allahs blessing to recite the text- reproduces allahs devine speach
What does Ramadan commemorate? What does one abstain from on Ramadan?
commemorates Muhammad first Revelation- abstain from eating drinking smoking sex ect during daylight hours for a month
Describe Pilgrimage (hajj).
quran requires pilgrimage to mecca as a religious deuty- encourages to go once in their life
Who is Muhammad? What is his role in Islam?
last in a series of prophets – has final and complete revolation from god in the quaran
Describe the major beliefs of the Sufi.
mystical element in islam- key element is dancing because it recreats the cosmos- belief that one can reach oneness to god
Describe Allah and understand the following words used to understand Allah: omnipresent, omniscient, and omnipotent
everywhere; all knowning; all powerful- creation god
Describe the major beliefs of the Shi’ite
imans – devinely inspired leaders that speak on behalf of allah after Muhammads death (unique to this set of islam)
Describe the major beliefs of the Sunni
look at the guran and hadith- commentarys on the quaran by muhammad
What are the Five Pillars?
repetion of the creed; daily prayer; alms giving fasting; pilgrimage
What does Jihad mean?
trouble in the path of god- spiritual and moral development
Who was Malcolm X?
minister and human rights activists- converted to islam and leader of civil rights movement; can use force to get what one wants; believes in brotherhood
Describe the Jinn
beings between humans and angels created by god that can still have a role in everything
Muslims believe that there is one deity known as and Muhammad is his .
allah; last prophet
The Imam in Islam is:
leader of prayer in the mosque
Describe two main functions of a Mosque.
religious services- prayers and reading of quaran; schools and libraries
Which day of the week did Muhammad declare to be a special day of prayer?
When did Muhammad live and Islam emerge?
7th century ce
The word Qur’an literally means:
muhhamids migration from mecca to medima
commentary of quaran by muhhamid and others (secondary scriptures)
Muhammad’s attitude toward Judaism and Christianity is best characterized as:
they are incomplete- they dont have the final revolations from god
The title Muslim literally means
one who submits to god
The five religious obligations known as the ___ require participation in a pilgrimage to
___ at least once in one’s lifetime
___ at least once in one’s lifetime
5 pillars; mecca
The ____ strong emphasis on the sovereignty of God has led some commentators to believe it teaches a doctrine of ___
The world’s most populous Muslim nation is
The Qur’an is divided into that are organized according to
surahs ; length
The word literally means “struggle in the path of God.”
The month long fast required of Muslims is called
the name given to the mystical-spiritual branch of Islam that opposes the legalistic and political development of Islam since the death of Muhammad.
Members of this Muslim group consider themselves defenders of orthodox Islam.
This Muslim group comprises ten to fifteen percent of world Muslims.